Tobacco

Publication Title: 
Addictive Behaviors

BACKGROUND: Smokers increasingly seek alternative interventions to assist in cessation or reduction efforts. Mindfulness meditation, which facilitates detached observation and paying attention to the present moment with openness, curiosity, and acceptance, has recently been studied as a smoking cessation intervention. AIMS: This review synthesizes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness meditation (MM) interventions for smoking cessation.

Author(s): 
Maglione, Margaret A.
Maher, Alicia Ruelaz
Ewing, Brett
Colaiaco, Benjamin
Newberry, Sydne
Kandrack, Ryan
Shanman, Roberta M.
Sorbero, Melony E.
Hempel, Susanne
Publication Title: 
Journal of Health Psychology

Recent studies have shown that mindfulness training has a promising potential for smoking treatment. In order to examine the efficacy of mindfulness training in smoking cessation, we performed a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Four randomized controlled trials with 474 patients were included in our analysis.

Author(s): 
Oikonomou, Maria Theodora
Arvanitis, Marios
Sokolove, Robert L.
Publication Title: 
Drug and Alcohol Dependence

BACKGROUND: This systematic review evaluated the effects of ear acupuncture, ear acupressure and auriculotherapy for cigarette smoking cessation (SC) at end-of-treatment (EoT), three, six and 12 months follow-up. METHODS: Searches of six English and Chinese databases located 25 randomized controlled trials (3735 participants). Methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias. Meta-analyses were conducted in two pools: 1. SC-specific ear acupuncture/acupressure or auriculotherapy (EAP/R) vs. non-specific/inactive control; and 2. SC-specific EAP/R vs.

Author(s): 
Di, Yuan Ming
May, Brian H.
Zhang, Anthony Lin
Zhou, Iris Wenyu
Worsnop, Christopher
Xue, Charlie C. L.
Publication Title: 
The European Journal of Neuroscience

Prenatal development is highly sensitive to maternal drug use due to the vulnerability for disruption of the fetal brain with its ongoing neurodevelopment, resulting in lifelong consequences that can enhance risk for psychiatric disorders. Cannabis and cigarettes are the most commonly used illicit and licit substances, respectively, among pregnant women.

Author(s): 
Morris, Claudia V.
DiNieri, Jennifer A.
Szutorisz, Henrietta
Hurd, Yasmin L.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is associated with early and long-term neurobehavioral deficits; however mechanisms remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that MSDP programs the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis of the offspring leading to adverse outcomes. In an intensive, prospective study, we investigated associations between MSDP and infant cortisol stress response and explored whether alterations in cortisol response were mediated by epigenetic modulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1).

Author(s): 
Stroud, Laura R.
Papandonatos, George D.
Rodriguez, Daniel
McCallum, Meaghan
Salisbury, Amy L.
Phipps, Maureen G.
Lester, Barry
Huestis, Marilyn A.
Niaura, Raymond
Padbury, James F.
Marsit, Carmen J.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Self-expanding experiences like falling in love or engaging in novel, exciting and interesting activities activate the same brain reward mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine pathway) that reinforces drug use and abuse, including tobacco smoking. This suggests the possibility that reward from smoking is substitutable by self-expansion (through competition with the same neural system), potentially aiding cessation efforts.

Author(s): 
Xu, Xiaomeng
Wang, Jin
Aron, Arthur
Lei, Wei
Westmaas, J. Lee
Weng, Xuchu
Publication Title: 
Hawaii Medical Journal

JABSOM takes its responsibility to improve health among Hawai'i's people to heart. The school's vision is, ALOHA: to Attain Lasting Optimal Health for All, a theme adopted through a strategic planning process which engaged JABSOM's partners in the health and life sciences including its private sector collaborators and its sister colleges throughout the University of Hawai'i's ten-campus system.

Author(s): 
Shelton, Tina M.
Hedges, Jerris R.
Publication Title: 
Pennsylvania Medical Journal (1928)
Author(s): 
Unterberger, H.
Leaman, W. G.
Publication Title: 
Saudi Medical Journal

OBJECTIVE: To draw a profile, and study the media habits for cigarette smokers in Saudi Arabia using the Target Group Index survey (TGI). METHODS: A household survey using the TGI sample was conducted in March 2008 in 21 cities in Saudi Arabia. A sample of 7003 individuals aged 15 years or more, male and females, living in town and cities, were randomly selected using the multistage sampling technique. One individual per household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire covering socio-economic profile, media exposure, and cigarette consumer information.

Author(s): 
Albedah, Abdullah M.
Khalil, Mohamed K.
Khalil, Asim A.
Elolemy, Ahmed T.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Production of pharmaceuticals in plants provides an alternative for chemical synthesis, fermentation or natural sources. Nicotiana benthamiana is deployed at commercial scale for production of therapeutic proteins. Here the potential of this plant is explored for rapid production of precursors of artemisinin, a sesquiterpenoid compound that is used for malaria treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biosynthetic genes leading to artemisinic acid, a precursor of artemisinin, were combined and expressed in N. benthamiana by agro-infiltration.

Author(s): 
van Herpen, Teun W. J. M.
Cankar, Katarina
Nogueira, Marilise
Bosch, Dirk
Bouwmeester, Harro J.
Beekwilder, Jules

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