Tobacco Use Disorder

Publication Title: 
Psychopharmacology

RATIONALE: Smoking cessation is associated with cigarette cravings and tobacco withdrawal symptoms (TWS), and exercise appears to ameliorate many of these negative effects. A number of studies have examined the relationships between exercise, cigarette cravings, and TWS. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (a) to review and update the literature examining the effects of short bouts of exercise on cigarette cravings, TWS, affect, and smoking behaviour and (b) to conduct meta-analyses of the effect of exercise on cigarette cravings.

Author(s): 
Roberts, Vaughan
Maddison, Ralph
Simpson, Caroline
Bullen, Chris
Prapavessis, Harry
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of General Practice: The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners

A literature search revealed 22 controlled clinical studies on the efficacy of acupuncture in three fields of addiction: cigarette smoking (15), heroin (five), and alcohol (two). These studies were reviewed using a list of 18 predefined criteria of good methodology. A maximum of 100 points for study design could be earned, divided over four categories: comparability of prognosis; adequate intervention; adequate effect measurement; and good data presentation. The study design was generally poor. No study earned more than 75 points and 12 studies (55%) earned less than 50 points.

Author(s): 
ter Riet, G.
Kleijnen, J.
Knipschild, P.
Publication Title: 
Tobacco Control

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of acupuncture for smoking cessation and to examine whether any individual aspect of trials is associated with an effect. DATA SOURCES: All randomised controlled trials of acupuncture for smoking cessation that were listed in computerised databases or reference lists of relevant articles. STUDY SELECTION: All randomised single-blind studies that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture. DATA EXTRACTION: Methodological data were extracted for quality assessment.

Author(s): 
White, A. R.
Resch, K. L.
Ernst, E.
Publication Title: 
Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde

OBJECTIVE: To obtain an overview of data from the Cochrane Library on smoking-cessation methods and aids available in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. METHOD: Common smoking-cessation methods in the Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 were selected from previous research. Data from relevant Cochrane reviews about these cessation methods were collected, after which the efficacy was calculated as a pooled odds ratio and the effectiveness as a percentage of 12 months' continuous abstinence.

Author(s): 
Willemsen, M. C.
Wagena, E. J.
van Schayck, C. P.
Publication Title: 
BMC medical research methodology

BACKGROUND: Recently developed measures such as I2 and H allow the evaluation of the impact of heterogeneity in conventional meta-analyses. There has been no examination of the development of heterogeneity in the context of a cumulative meta-analysis. METHODS: Cumulative meta-analyses of five smoking cessation interventions (clonidine, nicotine replacement therapy using gum and patch, physician advice and acupuncture) were used to calculate I2 and H.

Author(s): 
Villanueva, Elmer V.
Zavarsek, Silva
Publication Title: 
Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde

OBJECTIVE: To obtain an overview of data from the Cochrane Library on smoking-cessation methods and aids available in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. METHOD: Common smoking-cessation methods in the Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 were selected from previous research. Data from relevant Cochrane reviews about these cessation methods were collected, after which the efficacy was calculated as a pooled odds ratio and the effectiveness as a percentage of 12 months' continuous abstinence.

Author(s): 
Willemsen, M. C.
Wagena, E. J.
van Schayck, C. P.
Publication Title: 
BMC medical research methodology

BACKGROUND: Recently developed measures such as I2 and H allow the evaluation of the impact of heterogeneity in conventional meta-analyses. There has been no examination of the development of heterogeneity in the context of a cumulative meta-analysis. METHODS: Cumulative meta-analyses of five smoking cessation interventions (clonidine, nicotine replacement therapy using gum and patch, physician advice and acupuncture) were used to calculate I2 and H.

Author(s): 
Villanueva, Elmer V.
Zavarsek, Silva
Publication Title: 
Pharmacogenomics

The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays a central role in addictive disorders, including nicotine addiction. Specific DA-related gene variants have been studied to identify responsiveness to treatment for nicotine addiction. Genetic variants in DRD2, DRD4, ANKK1, DAT1, COMT and DBH genes show some promise in informing personalized prescribing of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. However, many trials studying these variants had small samples, used retrospective design or were composed of mainly self-identified Caucasian individuals.

Author(s): 
Herman, Aryeh I.
DeVito, Elise E.
Jensen, Kevin P.
Sofuoglu, Mehmet
Publication Title: 
Medecine Sciences: M/S

The genetic analyses of addictions recently converted to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and thanks to national and international consortia, allowed to recruit large cohorts of patients. This approach allowed the identification of the first susceptibility gene in addiction (tobacco), with genes CHRNA5, CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 encoding the ?5, ?3 and b4 subunits involved in the formation of nicotinic receptors, explaining 14% of the attributable risk for tobacco dependence.

Author(s): 
Ramoz, Nicolas
Gorwood, Philip
Publication Title: 
PLoS genetics

Individuals with fast nicotine metabolism typically smoke more and thus have a greater risk for smoking-induced diseases. Further, the efficacy of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is dependent on the rate of nicotine metabolism. Our objective was to use nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), an established biomarker of nicotine metabolism rate, in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants influencing nicotine metabolism. A heritability estimate of 0.81 (95% CI 0.70-0.88) was obtained for NMR using monozygotic and dizygotic twins of the FinnTwin cohort.

Author(s): 
Loukola, Anu
Buchwald, Jadwiga
Gupta, Richa
Palviainen, Teemu
H‰llfors, Jenni
Tikkanen, Emmi
Korhonen, Tellervo
Ollikainen, Miina
Sarin, Antti-Pekka
Ripatti, Samuli
Lehtim‰ki, Terho
Raitakari, Olli
Salomaa, Veikko
Rose, Richard J.
Tyndale, Rachel F.
Kaprio, Jaakko

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