Borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil has been used as a treatment for various degenerative diseases. Many useful properties of this oil are attributed to its high gamma linolenic acid content (GLA, 18:3 ?-6). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the safety and suitability of the use of borage seed oil, along with one of its active components, GLA, with respect to DNA integrity, and to establish possible in vivo toxic and in vitro cytotoxic effects.
BACKGROUND: Subfractions of HDL, particularly large HDL (HDL2), are inversely correlated with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). alpha-Tocopherol (AT) is the main lipid-soluble antioxidant in plasma. Results of a previous small study (n = 44) suggested that either a combination of an antioxidant cocktail [800 IU/day 2R,4'R,8'R-(RRR)-AT plus 1 g vitamin C, 25 mg beta-carotene, and 100 microg selenium] or individual antioxidant vitamins combined with simvastatin-niacin (S-N) therapy attenuated the protective increase in HDL2 seen with S-N alone.
Natural forms of vitamin E are metabolized by omega-hydroxylation and beta-oxidation of the hydrophobic side chain to generate urinary-excreted 2-(beta-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (CEHC) and CEHC conjugates (sulfate, glucuronide, or glucoside). We recently showed that sulfated long-chain carboxychromanols, the conjugated intermediate beta-oxidation products, are formed from tocopherols and tocotrienols in human cells and in rats. CEHC conjugates have been quantified after being converted to its unconjugated counterpart by sulfatase/glucuronidase.
The California Hass avocado ( Persea americana ) is an example of a domesticated berry fruit that matures on the tree during its growing season but ripens only after being harvested. Avocados are typically harvested multiple times during the growing season in California. Previous research has demonstrated potential health benefits of avocados and extracts of avocado against inflammation and cancer cell growth, but seasonal variations in the phytochemical profile of the fruits being studied may affect the results obtained in future research.
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Sustained fructose consumption has been shown to induce insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, in part, by promoting oxidative stress. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant with insulin-sensitizing activity. The effect of sustained fructose consumption (20% of energy) on the development of T2DM and the effects of daily LA supplementation in fructose-fed University of California, Davis-Type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rats, a model of polygenic obese T2DM, was investigated.
Eotaxin-3 (CCL-26), a potent chemokine for eosinophil recruitment and contributing significantly to the pathogenesis of asthma, is secreted by lung epithelial cells in response to T helper 2 cytokines including interleukin 13 (IL-13). Here we showed that vitamin E forms, but not their metabolites, differentially inhibited IL-13-stimulated generation of eotaxin-3 in human lung epithelial A549 cells. The relative inhibitory potency was γ-tocotrienol (γ-TE) (IC50 ~15 μM)>γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol (IC50 ~25-50 μM)>α-tocopherol.
BACKGROUND: There is limited literature on the contributors to isoprostane metabolite 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP-M) compared with F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs) as an oxidative stress biomarker. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether plasma concentrations of antioxidants, urinary excretion rates of polyphenols, and antioxidants in food and dietary supplements are attributable to both urinary F(2)-IsoP and 15-F(2t)-IsoP-M concentrations.