Neutrophils are major cells participants in innate host responses. They are short-lived leukocytes, although microbial products activate intracellular signaling cascades that prolong their survival by inhibiting constitutive apoptosis. To gain insight into the phylogeny of this important cell type, we examined the ability of toll-like receptor agonists to extend the lifespan of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) acidophilic granulocytes, which are the functional equivalent of mammalian neutrophils.
OBJECTIVE: Immune and inflammatory signaling pathways, initiated by the innate response, are involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated MyD88-dependent NFkappaB pathways play a role in the induction of innate immunity. We have reported that glucan phosphate (GP) improved survival in experimental sepsis, which correlated with decreased tissue NFkappaB activation. In the present study, we report that GP rapidly induced cardioprotection against I/R injury in vivo.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells specialized to initiate and maintain immunity and tolerance. DCs initiate immune responses in a manner that depends on signals they receive from pathogens, surrounding cells and their products. Most tumors are infiltrated by DCs. Thus, interactions between DCs and dying tumor cells may determine the balance between immunity and tolerance to tumor cells. In addition, DCs also display non-immunologic effects on tumors and the tumor microenvironment.
INTRODUCTION: Toll-like receptors play an important role in the innate immune system and are found to be crucial in severe diseases like sepsis, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. TLR2 and TLR4 expression is upregulated in the inflammatory diseases. Angiotensin II in addition to stimulating vasoconstriction also induces an increase in ROS and a proinflammatory phenotype via AT(1)R. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker (ARB), widely used as an antihypertensive drug, has been reported to also have anti-inflammatory effects.
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia-induced inflammation is central in diabetes complications, and monocytes are important in orchestrating these effects. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses and inflammation. However, there is a paucity of data examining the expression and activity of TLRs in hyperglycemic conditions. Thus, in the present study, we examined TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expression and mechanism of their induction in monocytic cells under high-glucose conditions.
Toll-like receptors (TLR) play an important role in the recognition of microbes by host sentinel cells that leads to the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the patterns of TLR2-, TLR3- and TLR9-expressing antigen presenting cells (APCs) in spleen and blood of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs after colonization with a mixture of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri or infection with the virulent human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) have been implicated in promoting the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence suggests that SFAs promote the metabolic syndrome by activating Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Here we examine emerging molecular evidence that SFAs directly engage pathways of innate immunity, thereby promoting inflammatory aspects of the metabolic syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have a myriad of metabolic aberrations including increased inflammation, increasing their cardiovascular risk. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their ligands play a key role in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, there is a paucity of data examining the expression and activity of TLRs in type 2 diabetes. Thus, in the present study, we examined TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expression, their ligands, and signaling in monocytes of recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients.
We previously showed that macrophages from macrophage-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) knockout (Abca1(-M/-M)) mice had an enhanced proinflammatory response to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct association between free cholesterol (FC), lipid raft content, and hyper-responsiveness of macrophages to LPS in WT mice. Abca1(-M/-M) macrophages were also hyper-responsive to specific agonists to TLR2, TLR7, and TLR9, but not TLR3, compared with WT macrophages.
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the majority of persons worldwide, and the ensuing gastric inflammatory response is the strongest singular risk factor for peptic ulceration and gastric cancer. However, only a fraction of colonized individuals ever develop clinically significant outcomes. Disease risk is combinatorial and can be modified by bacterial factors, host responses, and/or specific interactions between host and microbe. Several H.