Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause flaccid paralysis by interfering with vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release in the neuronal cells. BoNTs are the most widely used therapeutic proteins. BoNT/A was approved by the U.S. FDA to treat strabismus, blepharospam, and hemificial spasm as early as 1989 and then for treatment of cervical dystonia, glabellar facial lines, axillary hyperhidrosis, chronic migraine and for cosmetic use.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
BACKGROUND: Adult onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD) is a poorly penetrant autosomal dominant disorder; most gene carriers are non-manifesting despite having reached an adequate age for penetrance. It is hypothesised that genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors may exert protective or deleterious effects on penetrance of AOPTD. By examining environmental exposure history in cervical dystonia patients and their similarly aged unaffected siblings we aimed to determine the role of previous environmental exposures in relation to disease penetrance.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Dystonia and particularly spasmodic torticollis are neuromuscular disorders that are extremely resistant to most therapies (physical, medical, or surgical). Torticollis is a unilateral spasm of the neck muscles, particularly of the sternocleidomastoid, that produces violent, tonic turning of the head to one side. The etiology remains uncertain, although the role of psychogenic factors has been emphasized. This article reviews the literature and reports four cases of spasmodic torticollis treated successfully with hypnosis. In all four cases, psychogenic causes were involved.
The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice / American Board of Family Practice
BACKGROUND: Spasmodic torticollis is a movement disorder of the nuchal muscles, characterized by tremor or by tonic posturing of the head in a rotated, twisted, or abnormally flexed or extended position or some combination of these positions. The abnormal posturing of the head allows this disorder to be clinically diagnosed. Psychiatric symptoms frequently accompany or precede the diagnosis of the movement disorder.