Toxicity Tests

Publication Title: 
Journal of Medical Entomology

Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer's instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively.

Author(s): 
Strycharz, Joseph P.
Lao, Alice R.
Alves, Anna-Maria
Clark, J. Marshall
Publication Title: 
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences

Health problems are rising worldwide, be it as a consequence of lifestyle and longevity in increasingly affluent societies or due to a sharp rise in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The pharmaceutical industry is caught between high rates of attrition and the rather slow pace of a historically large regulatory system for pharmacological safety. Meanwhile, the past decade has seen a tremendous evolution of the biological toolbox, most notably of cellular assays, stem-cell differentiation and organ-mimicking systems. These systems were readily adapted for lead-compound identification.

Author(s): 
Tralau, Tewes
Luch, Andreas
Publication Title: 
Biomaterials

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of widely used nanomaterials in industry and biomedicine. The potential impact of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was evaluated using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a toxicological animal model. SWCNTs are extremely hydrophobic to form large agglomerates in aqueous solutions. Highly soluble amide-modified SWCNTs (a-SWCNTs) were therefore used in the present study so that the exact impact of SWCNTs could be studied. No significant toxicity was observed in C. elegans due to the amide modification.

Author(s): 
Chen, Po-Hsuan
Hsiao, Kuang-Ming
Chou, Cheng-Chung
Publication Title: 
Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology: RTP

The question of whether temporal equivalence can be established between test species and humans and be useful in the safety assessment of food additives has puzzled risk assessors throughout decades. The basic biological elements in any mammalian species, including humans, such as homeostasis, basal metabolism and body size/surface area, reproduction features, the timing of cellular proliferation, and aging and health as well as the relation between aging and the diet are essential in this discussion.

Author(s): 
Knudsen, I.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Toxicology

Glycyrrhetinic Acid and its salts and esters and Glycyrrhizic Acid and its salts and esters are cosmetic ingredients that function as flavoring agents or skin-conditioning agents - miscellaneous or both. These chemicals may be isolated from licorice plants. Glycyrrhetinc Acid is described as at least 98% pure, with 0.6% 24-OH-Glycyrrhetinic Acid, not more than 20 mu g/g of heavy metals and not more than 2 mu g/g of arsenic. Ammonium Glycyrrhizate has been found to be at least 98% pure and Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate has been found to be at least 95% pure.

Author(s): 
Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The objective of our study was to profile and compare the systematic changes between orally administered artesunate and intramuscularly injected artemether at a low dose over a 3-month period (92 consecutive days) in dogs. Intramuscular administration of 6 mg kg-1 artemether induced a decreased red blood cell (RBC) count (anemia), concurrent extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and inhibition of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow.

Author(s): 
Yin, Ji-ye
Wang, He-mei
Wang, Quan-jun
Dong, Yan-sheng
Han, Gang
Guan, Yong-biao
Zhao, Ke-yong
Qu, Wen-sheng
Yuan, Ye
Gao, Xiao-xin
Jing, Shu-fang
Ding, Ri-gao
Publication Title: 
Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery

Since hyperlipidemia, inflammation and obesity are closely related to atherosclerosis, therefore management of these factors together would be beneficial for overall treatment approach for atherosclerosis. Although, Indian system of medicine, especially Ayurveda has several medicinal plants with proven beneficial claims towards these pathological conditions, but most of them lack enough experimental data.

Author(s): 
Tripathi, Yamini B.
Publication Title: 
Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery

Since hyperlipidemia, inflammation and obesity are closely related to atherosclerosis, therefore management of these factors together would be beneficial for overall treatment approach for atherosclerosis. Although, Indian system of medicine, especially Ayurveda has several medicinal plants with proven beneficial claims towards these pathological conditions, but most of them lack enough experimental data.

Author(s): 
Tripathi, Yamini B.
Publication Title: 
Environmental Health Perspectives

The linear logistical isobologram is a commonly used and powerful graphical and statistical tool for analyzing the combined effects of simple chemical mixtures. In this paper a nonlinear isobologram model is proposed to analyze the joint action of chemical mixtures for quantitative dose-response relationships. This nonlinear isobologram model incorporates two additional new parameters, Ymin and Ymax, to facilitate analysis of response data that are not constrained between 0 and 1, where parameters Ymin and Ymax represent the minimal and the maximal observed toxic response.

Author(s): 
Chen, D. G.
Pounds, J. G.
Publication Title: 
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)

Immunotoxicity testing is important in determining the toxic effects of chemical substances, medicinal products, airborne pollutants, cosmetics, medical devices, and food additives. The immune system of the host is a direct target of these toxicants, and the adverse effects include serious health complications such as susceptibility to infections, cancer, allergic reactions, and autoimmune diseases. One way to investigate the harmful effects of different chemicals is to study apoptosis in immune cell populations.

Author(s): 
Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu
Vakharia, Dilip
Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

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