AIMS: Resveratrol, a silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) activator, has been reported to act as an antioxidant contained in red wine and prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases. Histone deacetylase such as SIRT1 is involved in the regulation of lifespan extension. In this study, the effect of resveratrol on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that play an important role in metastasis was examined in human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080. MAIN METHODS: The effect of resveratrol on MMPs' activity was evaluated using gelatin zymography.
The current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of the protective effect of calorie restriction (CR) against age-related fibrosclerosis is tentatively reviewed with specific reference to the role of oxidative stress in aging. The effects of oxidative stress are often mediated by its own final products. Of these, 4-hydroxy-2,3-nonenal (HNE) induces the expression and synthesis of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and activates nuclear binding of transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) thus stimulating fibrogenesis.
Intermittent fasting is one of the most effective dietary restriction regimens that extend life span in C. elegans and mammals. Fasting-stimulus responses are key to the longevity response; however, the mechanisms that sense and transduce the fasting stimulus remain largely unknown. Through a comprehensive transcriptome analysis in C. elegans, we find that along with the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, AP-1 (JUN-1/FOS-1) plays a central role in fasting-induced transcriptional changes. KGB-1, one of the C. elegans JNKs, acts as an activator of AP-1 and is activated in response to fasting.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in industrialized countries. Systemic treatment of breast cancer is effective at the beginning of therapy. However, after a variable period of time, progression occurs due to therapy resistance. Artesunate, clinically used as anti-malarial agent, has recently revealed remarkable anti-tumor activity offering a role as novel candidate for cancer chemotherapy. We analyzed the anti-tumor effects of artesunate in metastasizing breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Semecarpus anacardium (SA) Linn. (family Anacardiaceae), is a plant well-known for its medicinal value in Ayurveda. The nut extracts of this plant have been traditionally used as antihelminthic, anti-fungal, anti-carcinogenic and in the treatment of nervous debilities and arthritis. In this study we have evaluated crude ethanolic extract of SA nuts for its anti-inflammatory activities in vitro using peripheral blood and synovial fluid mononuclear cells of healthy individuals and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.
Two genes (MAT1A and MAT2A) encode for methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT), an essential cellular enzyme responsible for S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis. MAT1A is expressed mostly in the liver, whereas MAT2A is widely distributed. We showed a switch from MAT1A to MAT2A expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which facilitates cancer cell growth. Using DNase I footprinting analysis, we previously identified a region in the MAT2A promoter protected from DNase I digestion in HCC.
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is highly expressed in liver, kidney, adrenals, and intestine. FXR may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases via regulating the metabolism and transport of cholesterol. In this study, we report that FXR is also expressed in rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (EC), a "nonclassical" bile acid target tissue.
It is well documented that arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites are intimately linked to cancer biology. However, the downstream mechanism(s) that link AA levels to cancer cell proliferation remain to be elucidated. Initial experiments in the current study showed that exogenous AA and inhibitors of AA metabolism that lead to the accumulation of unesterified AA are cytotoxic to the colon cancer cell line, HCT-116. Additionally, exogenous AA and triacsin C, an inhibitor of AA acylation, induced apoptosis and related caspase-3 activity in a transcriptionally dependent manner.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver is initiated by the rate-limiting enzyme cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and excretion of bile acids from the liver is mediated by the bile salt export pump (BSEP). The expression of CYP7A1 and BSEP is coordinately regulated by a negative feedback and positive feed-forward mechanism, respectively, through bile acid-mediated activation of farsenoid X receptor (FXR). It is well established that hypolipidemic agent guggulsterone is an FXR antagonist and down-regulates FXR target genes.
Epidemiologic studies have suggested an inverse correlation between dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables and cancer risk. It is thus of interest to investigate the anticancer potential of phytochemicals presented in cruciferous vegetables. In this study, methyl-3-indolylacetate (MIA), a cruciferous indole for which the bioactivity has not been previously reported, was found to significantly suppress the invasion of cancer cells stimulated by the 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA).