The blood system is sustained by a pool of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are long-lived due to their capacity for self-renewal. A consequence of longevity is exposure to stress stimuli including reactive oxygen species (ROS), nutrient fluctuation and DNA damage. Damage that occurs within stressed HSCs must be tightly controlled to prevent either loss of function or the clonal persistence of oncogenic mutations that increase the risk of leukaemogenesis.
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) possessed antitumor activity in many human tumor cells through the induction of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHA on apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and the possible molecular mechanisms involved. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of DHA on HepG2 cells was measured by MTT assay. The percentage of apoptotic cells was detected by flow cytometry with double staining of fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin V/propidium iodide.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (HIV PIs) are the core components of highly active antiretroviral therapy, which has been successfully used in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in the past two decades. However, benefits of HIV PIs are compromised by clinically important adverse effects, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular complications. We have previously shown that activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in HIV PI-induced dys-regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism.
BACKGROUND: HIV protease inhibitors (PI) are core components of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), the most effective treatment for HIV infection currently available. However, HIV PIs have now been linked to lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia, which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Our previous studies have shown that HIV PIs activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and disrupt lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and macrophages.
Malignant gliomas are common primary tumors of the central nervous system. The prognosis of patients with malignant glioma is poor in spite of current intensive therapy and thus novel therapeutic modalities are necessary. Bufalin is the major component of Chan-Su (a traditional Chinese medicine) extracts from the venom of Bufo gargarizan. In this study, we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of bufalin on glioma cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that bufalin inhibited the growth of glioma cells significantly.