Transcription Initiation Site

Publication Title: 

The inducible IkappaB kinase (IKKi/IKKepsilon) is a recently described serine-threonine kinase that activates the transcription factors NFkappaB, interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) and CCAAA/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPdelta). Several inflammatory agents have been shown to induce the expression of the IKKi gene in macrophages and other cell types but the mechanism is unknown.

Wang, Naizhen
Ahmed, Salahuddin
Haqqi, Tariq M.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological Research: The Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

Despite it being a quintessential Phase II detoxification gene, the transcriptional regulation of the rat gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) is controversial. Computer-based sequence analysis identified three putative antioxidant response elements (AREs) at positions -889 to -865 (ARE1), -3170 to -3146 (ARE2) and -3901 to -3877 (ARE3) in the 5'-flanking region of the transcriptional start site. Transfections of individual ARE-luciferase reporter gene constructs into H4IIE cells, a rat hepatoma cell line, identified ARE3 as the functional promoter.

Shenvi, Swapna V.
Smith, Eric J.
Hagen, Tory M.
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