The inducible IkappaB kinase (IKKi/IKKepsilon) is a recently described serine-threonine kinase that activates the transcription factors NFkappaB, interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) and CCAAA/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPdelta). Several inflammatory agents have been shown to induce the expression of the IKKi gene in macrophages and other cell types but the mechanism is unknown.
Pharmacological Research: The Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Despite it being a quintessential Phase II detoxification gene, the transcriptional regulation of the rat gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) is controversial. Computer-based sequence analysis identified three putative antioxidant response elements (AREs) at positions -889 to -865 (ARE1), -3170 to -3146 (ARE2) and -3901 to -3877 (ARE3) in the 5'-flanking region of the transcriptional start site. Transfections of individual ARE-luciferase reporter gene constructs into H4IIE cells, a rat hepatoma cell line, identified ARE3 as the functional promoter.