Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals
Fa2N-4 cells have been proposed as a tool to identify CYP3A4 inducers. To evaluate whether Fa2N-4 cells are a reliable surrogate for cryopreserved human hepatocytes, we assessed the basal mRNA expression of 64 drug disposition genes in Fa2N-4 cells. Significant differences were found in the expression of major drug-metabolizing enzymes, nuclear receptors, and transporters between both cell types.
Withania somnifera (L.) is one of the most valuable medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic and other indigenous medicines. Pharmaceutical activities of this herb are associated with presence of secondary metabolites known as withanolides, a class of phytosteroids synthesized via mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathways. Though the plant has been well characterized in terms of phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities, not much is known about the genes responsible for biosynthesis of these compounds.
Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in promoting obesity-related disorders, such as fatty liver disease. The inflammatory cells that mediate these effects remain unknown. This study investigated the accumulation of immature myeloid cells in the liver and their role in liver inflammation. We found that the accumulation of immature myeloid cells, i.e., CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi)Ly6G(-) cells, in the liver of B6 mice fed a high-fat diet contribute to liver inflammation.