BACKGROUND: Artemisinin is a chemical compound extracted from the wormwood plant, Artemisia annua L. It has been shown to selectively kill cancer cells in vitro and retard the growth of implanted fibrosarcoma tumors in rats. In the present research, we investigated its mechanism of cytotoxicity to cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molt-4 cells, in complete RPMI-1640 medium, were first incubated with 12 microM of human holotransferrin at 37 degrees C in a humid atmosphere of 5% CO2 for one hour. This enhanced the iron supply to the cells.
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin is a compound isolated from the wormwood Artemisia annua L. It reacts with iron and forms cytotoxic free radicals. It is selectively more toxic to cancer than normal cells because cancer cells contain significantly more intracellular free iron. Previously, we found that covalently tagging artemisinin to transferrin enhanced the selectivity and toxicity of artemisinin toward cancer cells in vitro. In the present research, artemisinin-transferrin conjugate was tested in a rat breast cancer model.
Heme (Fe2+ protoporphyrin IX) is an essential molecule that has been implicated the potent antimalarial action of artemisinin and its derivatives, although the source and nature of the heme remain controversial. Artemisinins also exhibit selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that intracellular heme is the physiologically relevant mediator of the cytotoxic effects of artemisinins.
Cytotoxic activity of artemisinin and derivatives in the presence and absence of holo-transferrin and expression of genes involved in resistance of cancer cells were investigated in human cholangiocarcinoma (CL-6) and hepatocarcinoma (Hep-G2) cell lines in vitro. After incubation with the test drugs and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) cytotoxicity was asessed by MTT assay.
Artemisinin and its main active metabolite dihydroartemisinin, clinically used antimalarial agents with low host toxicity, have recently shown potent anticancer activities in a variety of human cancer models. Although iron mediated oxidative damage is involved, the mechanisms underlying these activities remain unclear. In the current study, we found that dihydroartemisinin caused cellular iron depletion in time- and concentration-dependent manners. It decreased iron uptake and disturbed iron homeostasis in cancer cells, which were independent of oxidative damage.
Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin is the major sesquiterpene lactones in sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.), and its combination with transferrin exhibits versatile anti-cancer activities. Their non-selective targeting for cancer cells, however, limits their application. The aim of this study was to prepare the artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes in thermosensitive and non-thermosensitive forms and evaluate their antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells for better tumor-targeted therapy.
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
BACKGROUND: Because of the risk of performing renal biopsies in children with co-morbid conditions, we carried out this study to identify candidate protein biomarkers in the urine of HIV-infected children with renal disease. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS: Urine samples from HIV-infected children with biopsy proven HIV-nephropathy (HIVAN; n = 4), HIV-associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HIV-HUS; n = 2), or no renal disease (n = 3) were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and proteomic methods.
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Dietary iron is particularly critical during periods of rapid growth such as in neonatal development. Human and rodent studies have indicated that iron deficiency or excess during this critical stage of development can have significant long- and short-term consequences. Since the requirement for iron changes during development, the availability of adequate iron is critical for the differentiation and maturation of individual organs participating in iron homeostasis.
Emodin is a multifunctional Chinese traditional medicine with poor water solubility. D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) is a pegylated vitamin E derivate. In this study, a novel liposomal-emodin-conjugating TPGS was formulated and compared with methoxypolyethyleneglycol 2000-derivatized distearoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (mPEG2000-DSPE) liposomal emodin. TPGS improved the encapsulation efficiency and stability of emodin egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes.