Resistant rootstocks offer an alternative to pesticides for the control of soil pests. In Prunus spp., resistance loci to root-knot nematodes (RKN) have been mapped and a transformation method is needed to validate candidate genes. Our efforts have focused on the generation of transformed hairy-roots and composite plants appropriate for nematode infection assays. An efficient and reliable method using the A4R strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the transformation of Prunus roots with an Egfp reporter gene is given.
BACKGROUND: Human atherosclerotic lesions contain elevated levels of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), expressed predominantly by macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test the hypothesis that macrophage-expressed uPA contributes to the progression and complications of atherosclerosis, we generated transgenic mice with macrophage-targeted overexpression of uPA. The uPA transgene was bred into the apolipoprotein E-null background, and transgenic mice and nontransgenic littermate controls were fed an atherogenic diet.
Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac.
Telomeres are elongated by the enzyme telomerase, which contains a template-bearing RNA (TER or TERC) and a protein reverse transcriptase. Overexpression of a particular mutant human TER with a mutated template sequence (MT-hTer-47A) in telomerase-positive cancer cells causes incorporation of mutant telomeric sequences, telomere uncapping, and initiation of a DNA damage response, ultimately resulting in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. The DNA damage pathways underlying these cellular effects are not well understood.
Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Previous studies using different techniques have shown that adenoviral-mediated gene transfer to different tissues, including the kidney, is more efficient in neonatal mice. In this study, we report a simple technique that allows an efficient and long term expression of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) in the heart of newborn mice. Newborn and adult C57BL6/J mice were subjected to a single retro-orbital venous plexus injection of recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAd) (2 x 10(9) particles/g body weight) carrying the lac Z gene.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of immune responses. There is evidence that miRNAs also participate in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), but how the miRNAs regulate the pathogenesis of MS is still under investigation. The identification of new members of the miRNA family associated with the pathogenesis of MS could facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Here, we show that the level of miRNA let-7e is significantly upregulated in EAE, an animal model of MS using miRNA array and quantitative real-time PCR.
The potential for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from genetically modified (GM) plant material to microbes through genetic recombination in the human or animal gut is a consideration that has engendered caution in the use of GM foods. This study was aimed at defining the optimal physical and chemical conditions necessary to ensure sufficient fragmentation of DNA in plant tissues to a size where it would be unlikely to be stably transferred to bacterial gut microflora.
BACKGROUND: Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified food crops are evaluated for their potential allergenic properties prior to marketing, among others by identification of short identical amino acid sequences that occur both in the transgenic protein and allergenic proteins. A strategy is proposed, in which the positive outcomes of the sequence comparison with a minimal length of six amino acids are further screened for the presence of potential linear IgE-epitopes.
Bt brinjal event EE-1 with cry1Ac gene, expressing insecticidal protein against fruit and shoot borer, is the first genetically modified food crop in the pipeline for commercialization in India. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) along with event-specific conventional as well as real-time PCR methods to characterize the event EE-1 is reported.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Adjustable control of therapeutic transgenes in engineered cell implants after transdermal and topical delivery of nontoxic trigger molecules would increase convenience, patient compliance, and elimination of hepatic first-pass effect in future therapies. Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E has evolved the flavonoid-triggered TtgR operon, which controls expression of a multisubstrate-specific efflux pump (TtgABC) to resist plant-derived defense metabolites in its rhizosphere habitat. Taking advantage of the TtgR operon, we have engineered a hybrid P.