Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Disorders: Official Publication of the World Federation of Neurology, Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hNT neuron transplants on motor neuron function in SOD1 (G93A) mice when motor deficits were already apparent. METHOD: The hNT neurons were implanted into L(4)-L(5) segments of the ventral horn spinal cord of mice at 15-16 weeks of age: either G93A mice, transgenic mice carrying the normal allele for human SOD1 gene (hTg), or control wild type mice (wt). Behavioral tests (rotorod, beam balance, extension reflex, footprint) were performed prior to transplantation and at weekly intervals afterwards.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of fractionated radiation treatments on the life spans of athymic rats bearing intracerebral brain tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: U-251 MG or U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells were implanted into the brains of athymic rats, and the resulting tumors were irradiated once daily with various doses of ionizing radiation for 5 consecutive days or for 10 days with a 2-day break after Day 5. RESULTS: Five daily doses of 1 and 1.5 Gy, and 10 doses of 0.75 and 1 Gy, cured some U-251 MG tumors.
With the aim of up-regulating antitumor efficacy and down-regulating adverse effects, three types of aromatic imide and diimides were designed to couple with different polyamines. The in vitro assays revealed that two naphthalene diimide-polyamine conjugates could inhibit the growth of multiple cancer cell lines more potently than amonafide. 9f, the most potent compound, was verified to efficiently induce apoptosis via a ROS mediated mitochondrial pathway in a preliminary mechanistic study.
Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a highly conserved family of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes that control the activity of histone and nonhistone regulatory proteins. SIRT1 is purposed to promote longevity and to suppress the initiation of some cancers. Nevertheless, SIRT1 is reported to function as a tumor suppressor as well as an oncogenic protein. Our data show that compared with normal liver or surrounding tumor tissue, SIRT1 is strongly overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
[I]nterest in animals as a source of organs and tissues for human beings remains strong. New developments in immunosuppression technology promise to lower the technical barriers to a routine use of nonhumans as organ donors, and the image of colonies of animals kept at the ready for supplying the growing human need for new organs seems a much more plausible scenario now than it did when broached by transplantation specialists in the Sixties. As Arthur Caplan has powerfully argued, the prospects that other sources of organs may resolve the supply problem are grim....
The aim of this study was to explore the public's feelings and ideas with regard to receiving transplants of different origins. Sixty-nine individuals with varying sociodemographic background, selected from samples who had responded to a questionnaire on receiving and donating organs, were interviewed in-depth. A wide variety of reactions was displayed.
Since 1960, clinical organ transplantation has evolved from an experimental procedure to highly successful 'routine', but as technical advances have extended eligibility to more victims of end-stage organ disease, the supply of donor organs has lagged behind. Urgency of need, probability of success and ability to pay are often used to limit waiting lists; without these, as many as 124,000 transplants per year could be performed in the USA alone.
As organ transplantation is physically possible within a tension between common biological properties and individual immunities, so it is ethically possible within a tension between individual personality in full integrity and the human community of which each member, social by nature, is an organic part. Ethical donation is by consent, explicit or presumed, spontaneously offered or procured by request. Altruism or commercial dealing is now a live issue in organ procurement, whether cadaveric or by live donation, related or unrelated.
Worldwide ethical considerations have led to banning markets for human organs and to promoting supply of organs for transplantation strictly on a donor noncommercial basis. In most industrialized countries, including France, there is a shortage of organs available for transplantation. Following on the earlier debate between Titmuss and Arrow over banning the market for blood supply, this presentation first challenges the conventional economic view that the ban is necessarily responsible for these critical shortages.
Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
This article in the series describes how UK law and medical ethics have evolved to accommodate developments in organ transplantation surgery. August committees have formulated definitions of the point of death of the person which are compatible with the lawful procurement of functioning vital organs from cadavers. Some of the complexities of dead donor rules are examined. Live donors are a major source of kidneys and the laws that protect them are considered. Financial inducements and other incentives to donate erode the noble concept of altruism, but should they be unlawful?