A group of transsexual and homosexual men was examined using the Leary Test as a psycho-sociogram, and findings were compared to those from a group of heterosexual men. It was found that the fathers of homosexuals and transsexuals were more hostile and less dominant than the fathers of the control group and hence less desirable identification models. The average mothers of transsexuals were close to the ideal person in our culture, e.g., dominant, strong and kindly, and thus an imposing identification model.
Scientific studies demonstrate high rates of HIV infection among male-to-female (MTF) transgender individuals and that stigma and discrimination place MTFs at increased risk for infection. However, there is little research examining how gender roles contribute to HIV risk. This paper reports on in-depth interviews with 20 MTFs attending a community clinic. Data reveal that stigma and discrimination create a heightened need for MTFs to feel safe and loved by a male companion and that in turn places them at a higher risk for acquiring HIV.
Across the United States there has been a spate of legislative bills and initiatives that blatantly stigmatize and discriminate against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This study was a cross-sectional, exploratory survey designed to measure the attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of Tennessee social workers and future social workers toward the LGBT population and toward proposed discriminatory legislation. A 3-way factorial ANOVA investigated the effects of political affiliation, religious affiliation, and social contact on the dependent measures.
Eight presurgical male-to-female transsexuals emitted significantly more feminine behaviors on a validated sex role motor behavior checklist than eight feminine women. Transsexuals also emitted more masculine behaviors than feminine women, although the total number of masculine behaviors in each group was far less than the total number of feminine behaviors. Indications for the management of transsexuals as well as the functions of sex role motor behavior in our society are discussed.
A self-theory of transvestism and secondary transsexuality in which gender identity is a major self subsystem has been advanced in previous research. Within this framework transsexuals and transvestites were compared on a number of developmental characteristics. While early-onset transsexuals (n = 103) were dominantly female, both late-onset transsexuals (n = 52) and transvestites (n = 36) showed much more feminine behavior than expected. This was interpreted as a sign that they were already developing a feminine gender identity in their early years.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
One hundred 5- to 12-year-old boys referred for outpatient psychiatric evaluation were assessed for cross-gender behavior using the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ) and the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ), and for possible associated psychopathology using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and clinical psychiatric (DSM-III) diagnoses. On the two feminine scales of the CBAQ and CGPQ, 30 to 50% scored within defined clinical ranges.
The Hippocratic text 'On the winds, waters and places' contains a fairly long description of an ancient Scythian tribe, the nomadic Sauromats. In this tribe the gender roles appear to have been inverted to some degree. The virgin women fight from horseback with swords, bows and arrows, and are not allowed to marry before they have killed three enemies. The married women are often infertile. The Hippocratic author ascribes this to the pronounced fatness of these women.
The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
PURPOSE: Young transgender women (YTW) face many challenges to their well-being, including homelessness, joblessness, victimization, and alarming rates of HIV infection. Little has been written about factors that might help in preventing HIV in this population. Our objective was to examine the role of religion in the lives of YTW and its relationship to HIV risk. METHODS: This study is derived from baseline data collected for an HIV prevention intervention.