Sandalwood oil has been found in numerous therapeutic applications in traditional medicines such as Chinese traditional medicine and Ayurveda. However, there are no comparative accounts available in the literature that focused on in vitro and in vivo tree sample-derived extracts. Combined dichloromethane and methanol extracts were obtained from in vitro samples, that is, callus, somatic embryo and seedlings, and in vivo from leaves of non-oil-yielding young and oil-yielding matured trees.
Leaf tissues of stone fruit trees (plum, apricot, peach and myrobalan) carrying symptoms of plum pox virus (PPV) infection and of peach GF 305 seedlings and Nicotiana benthamiana infected experimentally with PPV were assayed for PPV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expected 243 bp PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with restriction endonucleases AluI and RsaI. All of the PCR products contained the AluI site.
Our recent results on the plum pox virus (PPV) epidemiology show that PPV spreads very rapidly in plum tree plantations in the contaminated areas. A clearing of the PPV-infected trees reduces significantly the spread of the virus but does not eliminate the disease. Some plum tree cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks (Scoldus, Alina, Cristi, BN 1/8Fl, BN 2Gr. etc) showing field resistance could not be infected with PPV by natural way. However, they could be infected with PPV by artificial inoculation except for the plum tree cv.
The relative concentration of plum pox virus (PPV) in leaves and flowers of plum, damson, myrobalan, blackthorn, apricot and peach trees was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and expressed as the lowest dilution with positive reaction. Significant differences in relative PPV concentration were found in leaves among individual Prunus species naturally or artificially infected with the virus. The highest relative PPV concentration was found in blackthorns (7.81 x 10(-4)), common plum and apricot (1.56 x 10(-3) for the both latters).
Endophytic fungi represent an interesting group of microorganisms associated with the healthy tissues of terrestrial plants. They represent a large reservoir of genetic diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the inner bark segments of ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal tree species, namely Terminalia arjuna, Crataeva magna, Azadirachta indica, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia chebula, and Butea monosperma (11 individual trees), growing in different regions of southern India. Forty-eight fungal species were recovered from 2200 bark segments.
Terminalia trees are being over-exploited because of their medicinal and economical importance leading to loss of valuable genetic resources. For sustainable utilization and conservation, assessment of genetic diversity therefore becomes imperative. We report a comprehensive first study on estimation and analysis of genetic variation through Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), inter simple sequence repeat polymorphism (ISSR) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) across three species of Terminalia.
Isolation of intact and pure genomic DNA (gDNA) is essential for many molecular biology applications. It is difficult to isolate pure DNA from mature trees of hot and dry desert regions because of the accumulation of high level of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, tannins etc. We hereby report the standardized protocol for the isolation and purification of gDNA from seven ecologically and medically important tree species of Combretaceae viz. Anogeissus (Anogeissus sericea var.
The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density.
Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
This study evaluated effects of farming practice scenarios aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of a beef cattle production system using the life cycle assessment approach. The baseline scenario includes a standard cow-calf herd with finishing heifers based on grazing, and a standard bull-fattening herd using a diet mainly based on maize silage, corresponding to current farm characteristics and management by beef farmers in France. Alternative scenarios were developed with changes in farming practices.
OBJECTIVE: In Southeast Asia, malaria vectors bite outside the houses before bedtime, and forest dwellers rarely use insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Thus, we tested the protection of long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (LLIH) using Olyset technology against exophagic vectors in two forest villages of Cambodia. METHODS: In each village, we conducted two entomological surveys (middle and end of the rainy season), each lasting 10 consecutive nights. These comprised human landing collections during the whole night by people sitting outside in the hammocks.