Tretinoin

Publication Title: 
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

The ID (inhibitor of differentiation or DNA binding) helix-loop-helix proteins are important mediators of cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of cell types through regulation of gene expression. Overexpression of the ID proteins in normal human keratinocytes results in extension of culture lifespan, indicating that these proteins are important for epidermal differentiation. Our hypothesis is that the ID proteins are targets of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in keratinocytes.

Author(s): 
Villano, C. M.
White, L. A.
Publication Title: 
The FEBS journal

Lipocalins are a family of proteins characterized by a conserved eight-stranded ?-barrel structure with a ligand-binding pocket. They perform a wide range of biological functions and this functional multiplicity must relate to the lipid partner involved. Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and its insect homologues, Lazarillo (Laz) and neural Lazarillo (NLaz), share common ancestral functions like longevity, stress resistance and lipid metabolism regulation, coexisting with very specialized functions, like courtship behavior.

Author(s): 
Ruiz, Mario
Sanchez, Diego
Correnti, Colin
Strong, Roland K.
Ganfornina, Maria D.
Publication Title: 
Nucleic Acids Research

Reln mRNA and protein levels are reduced by approximately 50% in various cortical structures of post-mortem brain from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar illness with psychosis. To study mechanisms responsible for this down-regulation, we have analyzed the promoter of the human reelin gene. We show that the reelin promoter directs expression of a reporter construct in multiple human cell types: neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y), neuronal precursor cells (NT2), differentiated neurons (hNT) and hepatoma cells (HepG2).

Author(s): 
Chen, Ying
Sharma, Rajiv P.
Costa, Robert H.
Costa, Erminio
Grayson, Dennis R.
Publication Title: 
Platelets

Both, the activity of transcription factors as well as epigenetic alterations in defined DNA regions regulate cellular differentiation processes. Hence, neuronal differentiation from neural progenitor cells is promoted by the transcription factor all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA). VPA has also been shown to be involved in differentiation of tumor cells and to greatly improve the reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells.

Author(s): 
Schweinfurth, N.
Hohmann, S.
Deuschle, M.
Lederbogen, F.
Schloss, P.
Publication Title: 
Blood

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) can cause growth suppressive and proapoptotic effects on retinoids in many types of cancer cells. However, the expression and effects of IGFBP-3 in myeloid leukemia cells have not been elucidated. In this study, we found no IGFBP-3 expression in the human myeloid leukemia cell lines either at baseline or after stimulation with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Human recombinant IGFBP-3 induced growth arrest and apoptosis of HL-60 and NB4 cells.

Author(s): 
Ikezoe, Takayuki
Tanosaki, Sakae
Krug, Utz
Liu, Bingrong
Cohen, Pinchas
Taguchi, Hirokuni
Koeffler, H. Phillip
Publication Title: 
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immune-suppressive properties, follow a pattern of multilineage differentiation, and exhibit transdifferentiation potential. Ease in expansion from adult bone marrow, as well as its separation from ethical issues, makes MSCs appealing for clinical application. MSCs treated with retinoic acid resulted in synaptic transmission, based on immunostaining of synaptophysin and electrophysiological studies. In situ hybridization indicated that the neurotransmitter gene preprotachykinin-I was expressed in these cells.

Author(s): 
Cho, Kyung Jin
Trzaska, Katarzyna A.
Greco, Steven J.
McArdle, Joseph
Wang, Fu Shun
Ye, Jiang-Hong
Rameshwar, Pranela
Publication Title: 
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology

The zebrafish model system is one of the most widely used animal models for developmental research and it is now becoming an attractive model for drug discovery and toxicological screening. The completion of sequencing the zebrafish genome and the availability of full-length cDNAs and DNA microarrays for expression analysis, in addition to techniques for generating transgenic lines and targeted mutations, have made the zebrafish model even more attractive to researchers.

Author(s): 
Elo, B.
Villano, C. M.
Govorko, D.
White, L. A.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

On occasion, emerging scientific fields intersect and great discoveries result. In the last decade, the discovery of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) in immunity has revolutionized our understanding of how the immune system is controlled. Intersecting the rapidly emerging field of T(reg) function, has been the discovery that retinoic acid (RA) controls both the homing and differentiation of T(reg).

Author(s): 
Pino-Lagos, Karina
Benson, Micah J.
Noelle, Randolph J.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

PURPOSE: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. The long-term survival of osteosarcoma patients hinges on our ability to prevent and/or treat recurrent and metastatic lesions. Here, we investigated the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and retinoid receptors as a means of differentiation therapy for human osteosarcoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the endogenous expression of PPARgamma and retinoid receptors in a panel of osteosarcoma cells.

Author(s): 
He, Bai-Cheng
Chen, Liang
Zuo, Guo-Wei
Zhang, Wenli
Bi, Yang
Huang, Jiayi
Wang, Yi
Jiang, Wei
Luo, Qing
Shi, Qiong
Zhang, Bing-Qiang
Liu, Bo
Lei, Xia
Luo, Jinyong
Luo, Xiaoji
Wagner, Eric R.
Kim, Stephanie H.
He, Connie J.
Hu, Yawen
Shen, Jikun
Zhou, Qixin
Rastegar, Farbod
Deng, Zhong-Liang
Luu, Hue H.
He, Tong-Chuan
Haydon, Rex C.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), BMP9 is one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is known to play an important role in development, differentiation and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigate the effect of RA signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both primary MPCs and MPC line are used for BMP9 and RA stimulation. Recombinant adenoviruses are used to deliver BMP9, RARalpha and RXRalpha into MPCs.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Wenli
Deng, Zhong-Liang
Chen, Liang
Zuo, Guo-Wei
Luo, Qing
Shi, Qiong
Zhang, Bing-Qiang
Wagner, Eric R.
Rastegar, Farbod
Kim, Stephanie H.
Jiang, Wei
Shen, Jikun
Huang, Enyi
Gao, Yanhong
Gao, Jian-Li
Zhou, Jian-Zhong
Luo, Jinyong
Huang, Jiayi
Luo, Xiaoji
Bi, Yang
Su, Yuxi
Yang, Ke
Liu, Hao
Luu, Hue H.
Haydon, Rex C.
He, Tong-Chuan
He, Bai-Cheng

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