Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Compounds with anti-glutamatergic properties currently in clinical use for various indications (eg Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, psychosis, mood disorders) have potential utility as novel treatments for alcoholism. Enhanced sensitivity to certain acute intoxicating effects (ataxia, sedative) of alcohol may be one mechanism by which anti-glutamatergic drugs modulate alcohol use.
The in vitro effect of the following antimicrobial agents on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were studied: artemisinin ether (arteether), cycloguanil hydrochloride (cycloguanil), mefloquine, primaquine phosphate, and quinine sulfate, as well as the calcium channel blocker verapamil and the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine hydrochloride. Arteether at > or = 0.5 micrograms/ml and cycloguanil at > or = 1.0 micrograms/ml inhibited T. gondii in vitro. Cycloguanil (2.5 micrograms/ml) combined with a noninhibitory concentration of sulfadiazine (25 micrograms/ml) inhibited T.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
The in vitro activities of doxycycline, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, artemether, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil were evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal (Dielmo and Ndiop), using an isotopic, micro, drug susceptibility test. The 71-50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for doxycycline ranged from 0.7 to 108.0 microM and the geometric mean IC50 for the 71 isolates was 11.3 microM (95% confidence interval = 9.5-13.4 microM).
BACKGROUND: In Zambia the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria is artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), with artemether-lumefantrine currently being used. However, the antifolate regimen, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), remains the treatment of choice in children weighing less than 5 kg and also in expectant mothers. SP is also the choice drug for intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy and serves as stand-by treatment during ACT stock outs.
Ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products are considered safe under the impression that they are derived from natural products. But recently, there have been several reports worldwide on the adulteration of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors in aphrodisiac herbal formulations. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the presence of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil and/or vardenafil) in ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products sold in Indian market for aphrodisiac/related uses. In total, 85 herbal formulations (HFs) were included in the study.
Mounting evidence indicates that erectile dysfunction medications (EDMs) have become increasingly used as a sexual enhancement aid among men without a medical indication. Recreational EDM use has been associated with increased sexual risk behaviors, an increased risk for STIs, including incident HIV infection, and high rates of concomitant illicit drug use. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and associated risk factors for recreational EDM use among young, healthy, undergraduate men.
OBJECTIVE: Due to less experience with the cross-reactivity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in Chinese population, we surveyed the rates of cross- reactivity of rash among commonly used AEDs in Chinese patients with epilepsy, particularly between the traditional and the new compounds. METHODS: We have retrospectively reviewed the medical records concerning all antiepileptic drug treatment in consecutive Chinese patients with epilepsy in our center.