Studies were conducted using an ovariectomized rat model to determine the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) extracts. A red clover extract, standardized to contain 15% isoflavones was administered by gavage [250, 500 and 750 mg/(kg x d)] to virgin, ovariectomized 50-d-old Sprague-Dawley rats, for 21 d in the presence and absence of 17beta-estradiol [50 microg/(kg x d)]. Estrogenic effects included an increase in uterine weight, vaginal cell cornification and mammary gland duct branching.
Because the prevailing form of hormone replacement therapy is associated with the development of cancer in breast and endometrial tissues, alternatives are needed for the management of menopausal symptoms. Formulations of Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) are being used to alleviate menopause-associated hot flashes but have shown mixed results in clinical trials. The strobiles of Humulus lupulusL.
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae) dietary supplements are currently used to treat menopausal symptoms because of their high content of the mildly estrogenic isoflavones daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and biochanin A. These compounds are estrogenic in vitro and in vivo, but little information exists on the best time to harvest red clover fields to maximize content of the isoflavones and thus make an optimal product. Samples of cultivated red clover above-ground parts and flower heads were collected in parallel over one growing season in northeastern Illinois.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVES: To document the chemical and biologic profile of a clinical phase II red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) extract by identifying and measuring the major and minor components visible in the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) chromatogram and evaluating each compound for estrogenic and antioxidant activity.
Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society
INTRODUCTION: Menopause is associated with mid-life, a time when many women begin to experience the signs and symptoms of aging, such as increases in blood pressure, changes in lipid profiles, loss of bone mass density, and diminished memory and cognition. Given the result of the Women's Health Initiative, many women no longer consider hormone therapy the first option for promoting healthy aging. Instead, they are turning to botanical and dietary supplement (BDS) products in place of hormone therapy.
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
A high throughput screening assay for the identification of ligands to pharmacologically significant receptors was developed based on magnetic particles containing immobilized receptors followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This assay is suitable for the screening of complex mixtures such as botanical extracts. For proof-of-principle, estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) and ER-beta were immobilized on magnetic particles functionalized with aldehyde or carboxylic acid groups.
The lack of a safe and reliable alternative to hormone therapy (HT) for treating menopausal symptoms underscores the need for alternative therapies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the in vivo estrogenic effects of the botanical dietary supplements Trifolium pratense (red clover) and Humulus lupulus (hops), and two compounds obtained from H. lupulus, isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) using the ovariectomized uterotrophic adult rat model. A H. lupulus extract and a 30% isoflavone extract of T.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
INTRODUCTION: Reduction of ovarian estrogen secretion at menopause increases net bone resorption and leads to bone loss. Isoflavones have been reported to protect bone from estrogen deficiency, but their modest effects on bone resorption have been difficult to measure with traditional analytical methods.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of red clover, black cohosh, and combined hormone therapy on cognitive function in comparison to placebo in women with moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. METHODS: In a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 66 midlife women (of 89 from a parent study; mean age, 53 y) with 35 or more weekly hot flashes were randomized to receive red clover (120 mg), black cohosh (128 mg), 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA), or placebo.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover compared with placebo for the relief of menopausal vasomotor symptoms. METHODS: This study was a randomized, four-arm, double-blind clinical trial of standardized black cohosh, red clover, placebo, and 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA; n = 89).