Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Calcium acts as a second messenger and plays a crucial role in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation. Recently, calcium channels related to calcium influx into the cytosol of epithelial cells have attracted attention as a cancer therapy target. Of these calcium channels, TRPV6 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and is considered an important molecule in the process of metastasis. However, its exact role and mechanism is unclear. NUMB, well-known tumor suppressor gene, is a novel interacting partner of TRPV6.
Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs.
Multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nerves innervate human nasal mucosa. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular, and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent identification of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of transient receptor potential sensory receptor ion channel proteins may account for the polymodal, chemo- and mechanicosensitivity of many trigeminal neurons.
Many transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated or blocked by various compounds found in plants; two prominent examples include the activation of TRPV1 channels by capsaicin and the activation of TRPM8 channels by menthol. We sought to identify additional plant compounds that are active on other types of TRP channels. We screened a library of extracts from 50 Chinese herbal plants using a calcium-imaging assay to find compounds active on TRPV3 and TRPV4 channels. An extract from the plant Andrographis paniculata potently activated TRPV4 channels.
BACKGROUND: The importance of bi-directional brain-gut interactions in gastrointestinal illness is increasingly being recognized, most prominently in the area of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Numerous current and emerging therapies aimed at normalizing brain-gut interactions are a focus of interest, particularly for irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia. METHODS: A literature search was completed for preclinical and clinical studies related to central modulation of gastrointestinal functions and published in English between 1980 and 2006.
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) is an important nociceptor involved in neurogenic inflammation. We aimed to examine the role of TRPV1 in experimental colitis and in the development of visceral hypersensitivity to mechanical and chemical stimulation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single dose of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in the distal colon. In the preemptive group, rats received the TRPV1 receptor antagonist JYL1421 (10 mumol/kg, i.v.) or vehicle 15 min prior to TNBS followed by daily doses for 7 days.
Ongoing studies have developed strategies for identifying key bioactive compounds and chemical profiles in Echinacea with the goal of improving its human health benefits. Antiviral and antiinflammatory-antipain assays have targeted various classes of chemicals responsible for these activities. Analysis of polar fractions of E. purpurea extracts showed the presence of antiviral activity, with evidence suggesting that polyphenolic compounds other than the known HIV inhibitor, cichoric acid, may be involved. Antiinflammatory activity differed by species, with E.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Disorders of water balance are among the most common and morbid of the electrolyte disturbances, and are reflected clinically as abnormalities in the serum sodium concentration. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel is postulated to comprise an element of the central tonicity-sensing mechanism in the mammalian hypothalamus, and is activated by hypotonic stress in vitro. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in the TRPV4 gene gives rise to a Pro-to-Ser substitution at residue 19.
The present study was to examine the distribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) receptor immunoreactivity in the acupuncture points (acupoint), and determine the influences of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation on TRPV1 expression. EA stimulation of BL 40 was conducted in two sessions of 20 min separated by an 80 min interval in anesthetized rats. Sections of skin containing BL 40, and its non-meridian control were examined by immunolabeling with antibodies directed against TRPV1.
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are getting increased attention as one of the main regulatory cells of the immune system. They are induced at sites of inflammation and can potently suppress T cell functions. In the current study, we demonstrate how activation of TRPV1 vanilloid receptors can trigger MDSCs, which in turn, can inhibit inflammation and hepatitis.