Tryptophan

Publication Title: 
Journal of Affective Disorders

BACKGROUND: In 2001, the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) partnered to produce evidence-based clinical guidelines for the treatment of depressive disorders. A revision of these guidelines was undertaken by CANMAT in 2008-2009 to reflect advances in the field. There is widespread interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: The CANMAT guidelines are based on a question-answer format to enhance accessibility to clinicians.

Author(s): 
Ravindran, Arun V.
Lam, Raymond W.
Filteau, Marie J.
Lespérance, François
Kennedy, Sidney H.
Parikh, Sagar V.
Patten, Scott B.
Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT)
Publication Title: 
Journal of Affective Disorders

BACKGROUND: Depressed and anxious patients often combine complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies with conventional pharmacotherapy to self-treat symptoms. The benefits and risks of such combination strategies have not been fully evaluated. This paper evaluates the risk-benefit profile of CAM augmentation to antidepressants in affective conditions. METHODS: PubMed was searched for all available clinical reports published in English up to December 2012. Data were evaluated based on graded levels of evidence for efficacy and safety.

Author(s): 
Ravindran, Arun V.
da Silva, Tricia L.
Publication Title: 
Sleep Medicine Reviews

In concert with growing public interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these therapies and products have been increasingly studied over the past two decades for the treatment of sleep disorders. While systematic reviews have been conducted on acupuncture and valerian in the treatment of insomnia, to date no comprehensive review has been conducted on all major CAM treatments.

Author(s): 
Sarris, Jerome
Byrne, Gerard J.
Publication Title: 
Sleep Medicine Reviews

In concert with growing public interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these therapies and products have been increasingly studied over the past two decades for the treatment of sleep disorders. While systematic reviews have been conducted on acupuncture and valerian in the treatment of insomnia, to date no comprehensive review has been conducted on all major CAM treatments.

Author(s): 
Sarris, Jerome
Byrne, Gerard J.
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Disease

An increasing body of evidence indicates a role for oligomers of the amyloid-? peptide (A?) in the neurotoxicity of this peptide and the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several neurotoxic oligomeric forms of A? have been noted ranging from the larger Amyloid ?-Derived Diffusible Ligands (ADDLs) to smaller trimers and dimers of A?. More recently a dodecameric form of A? with a 56 kDa molecular weight, denoted A?*56, was shown to cause memory impairment in AD model mice.

Author(s): 
Scherzer-Attali, R.
Farfara, D.
Cooper, I.
Levin, A.
Ben-Romano, T.
Trudler, D.
Vientrov, M.
Shaltiel-Karyo, R.
Shalev, D. E.
Segev-Amzaleg, N.
Gazit, E.
Segal, D.
Frenkel, D.
Publication Title: 
Geriatrics
Author(s): 
Kent, S.
Publication Title: 
Geriatrics
Author(s): 
Kent, S.
Publication Title: 
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

In 1995, the macrophage-T lymphocyte theory of schizophrenia (Smith and Maes, 1995) considered that activated immuno-inflammatory pathways may account for the higher neurodevelopmental pathology linked with gestational infections through the detrimental effects of activated microglia, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), cytokine-induced activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway and consequent modulation of the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) and glutamate production.

Author(s): 
Anderson, George
Maes, Michael
Publication Title: 
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

A vast number of imaging studies have demonstrated the impact of serotonin (5-HT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on emotion and memory-related networks in the context of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Underlying molecular mechanisms that affect the functionality of these networks have been examined in detail in animals and corroborate imaging findings.

Author(s): 
Kuhn, Manuel
Popovic, Ana
Pezawas, Lukas
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological reports: PR

Depression has been conceptualized as a disorder driven by immuno-inflammatory pathways and oxidative and nitrosative stress. These factors couple to the induction of neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolites via the activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Oxidative damage to neoepitopes increases autoimmune responses, changing the nature of the neural substrate of recurrent depression, which leads to neuroprogression and drives treatment resistance. A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines are linked to these processes.

Author(s): 
Anderson, George
Kubera, Marta
Duda, Weronika
Laso?, W?adys?aw
Berk, Michael
Maes, Michael

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