Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Painful human interactions are often followed by urges to forgive, be forgiving, or seek forgiveness. The insight analysands develop into their transferences highlights their finding gratification in constantly reenacting painful interactions. Their new understanding can make forgiveness seem irrelevant; waiving the question of forgiveness might then seem the wiser course to follow. Also thrown into question is whether total forgiveness of self and others can ever be achieved. Shakespeare's The Tragedy of King Lear raises these questions.
The effects of alfentanil on the midazolam dose-response curve for hypnosis was studied with response to the verbal command as an end point in 95 patients. The analgesic effect of alfentanil was studied by measuring the threshold for pain caused by pressure on the trapezius muscle with the use of a dolorimeter in 21 patients. The study was randomized, double-blind, and performed on the unpremedicated patients with ASA physical status I or II. Alfentanil was found to reduce the midazolam ED50 value for the induction of anesthesia in a dose-dependent fashion.
OBJECTIVE: Consensus has not been achieved on the presence of unconscious memory of messages in general anesthesia for methodological reasons. Our objective was to apply a model of anesthesia that allows for clinical control of the level of hypnosis in order to evaluate the presence and characteristics of implicit memory in deep sedation with propofol. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We randomly assigned 48 consecutive patients undergoing lower limb surgery to two groups.
BACKGROUND: Extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) by an auto regressive model with exogenous input (ARX) enables extraction of the AEP within 1.7 s. In this way, the depth of hypnosis can be monitored at almost real-time. However, the identification and the interpretation of the appropriate signals of the AEP could be difficult to perform during the anesthesia procedure. This problem was addressed by defining an index which reflected the peak amplitudes and latencies of the AEP, developed to improve the clinical interpretation of the AEP.
BACKGROUND: We report the evaluation of six sedative-hypnotic and analgesic combinations administered to children undergoing brief periods of unconscious (or deep) sedation for painful procedures. METHODS: In a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled study of six groups of 27-30 children each, patients were randomly assigned to receive propofol or methohexital for sedation-hypnosis, and one of three incremental doses of fentanyl or remifentanil, respectively.
BACKGROUND: The Narcotrend index (MonitorTechnik, Bad Bramstedt, Germany) is a dimensionless number between 0 and 100 that is calculated from the electroencephalogram and inversely correlates with depth of hypnosis. The current study evaluates the capability of the Narcotrend to separate awareness from unconsciousness at the transition between these levels. METHODS: Electroencephalographic recordings of 40 unpremedicated patients undergoing elective surgery were analyzed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive (1) sevoflurane-remifentanil (</= 0.1 microg . kg .
BACKGROUND: In pediatric patients, the Bispectral Index (BIS), derived from the electroencephalogram, and the composite A-Line autoregressive index (cAAI), derived from auditory evoked potentials and the electroencephalogram, have been used as measurements of depth of hypnosis during anesthesia. The performance and reliability of BIS and cAAI in distinguishing different hypnotic states in children, as evaluated with the University of Michigan Sedation Scale, were compared. METHODS: Thirty-nine children (aged 2-16 yr) scheduled to undergo elective inguinal hernia surgery were studied.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will highlight the recent functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomogram scan and connectivity studies in anesthesia and analgesia. RECENT FINDINGS: In regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies with isoflurane and sevoflurane, there is a consistent pattern of rise in rCBF in the anterior cingulate cortex and insula while the thalamus, lingual cortex and cerebellum show a decrease in rCBF, in a dose range of 0.2-1 minimum alveolar concentration.