United Kingdom

Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) defines a group of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Although the aetiology of ASD has a strong genetic component, there is considerable monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance indicating a role for non-genetic factors. Because MZ twins share an identical DNA sequence, disease-discordant MZ twin pairs provide an ideal model for examining the contribution of environmentally driven epigenetic factors in disease.

Author(s): 
Wong, C. C. Y.
Meaburn, E. L.
Ronald, A.
Price, T. S.
Jeffries, A. R.
Schalkwyk, L. C.
Plomin, R.
Mill, J.
Publication Title: 
Family Planning Perspectives

A survey of the attitudes and practices of general practitioners in Northern Ireland regarding contraception and abortion was carried out in 1994 and 1995 with a randomized sample of 154 physicians. The vast majority of doctors who received requests for contraceptives from their patients fulfilled those request (94%). Overall, 13% of the doctors said a married patient had requested an abortion in the past three months, and 34% had had a similar request from an unmarried patient.

Author(s): 
Francome, C.
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Clinical Psychology

OBJECTIVES: The present study explored the association between beliefs about death, superstitious beliefs, and health anxiety. It was hypothesized that negative beliefs about death and superstitious beliefs would be positively correlated with health anxiety. Conversely, positive beliefs about death were hypothesized to be negatively correlated with health anxiety. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, correlational and multiple regression design was adopted.

Author(s): 
James, Abigail
Wells, Adrian
Publication Title: 
Journal of Medical Ethics

Skene and Parker are demonstrably mistaken in suggesting that the amicus role of Catholic bishops in three cases has been concerned with "developing" the law. In contrast with Skene and Parker's freestanding conception of legal principle, the Catholic understanding of law's rational moral foundations has permitted Catholic bishops to defend longstanding legal principle as well as defending the integrity of the church's health care and welfare services.

Author(s): 
Gormally, L.
Publication Title: 
Journal International De Bioethique = International Journal of Bioethics

While medicine has made remarkable progress over the last decades, its development has also raised numerous ethical and legal issues. In this context, the question arises as to what framework is needed for research, organ transplants, and medically assisted reproduction. A balance has to be found between scientific freedom, the imperatives of public health and the protection of people ' welfare, rights and human dignity. Those questions have led to the adoption of multiple national laws as well as ethical and legal norms at the international level.

Author(s): 
Sprumont, Dominique
Roduit, Guillaume
Hertig Pea, AgnËs
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of a mental health training module on the therapeutic optimism of advanced nurse practitioner (ANP) students in primary care (family practice). DATA SOURCES: Three cohorts of ANPs who undertook a Mental Health Problems in Primary Care Module as part of their MSc ANP (primary care) run by the University of Huddersfield completed the Elsom Therapeutic Optimism Scale (ETOS), in a pre- and postformat. The ETOS is a 10-item, self-administered scale, which has been used to evaluate therapeutic optimism previously in mental health professionals.

Author(s): 
Hemingway, Steve
Rogers, Melanie
Elsom, Stephen
Publication Title: 
BMC medical ethics

BACKGROUND: Ocular gene transfer clinical trials are raising hopes for blindness treatments and attracting media attention. News media provide an accessible health information source for patients and the public, but are often criticized for overemphasizing benefits and underplaying risks of novel biomedical interventions. Overly optimistic portrayals of unproven interventions may influence public and patient expectations; the latter may cause patients to downplay risks and over-emphasize benefits, with implications for informed consent for clinical trials.

Author(s): 
Benjaminy, Shelly
Bubela, Tania
Publication Title: 
Journal of Public Health (Oxford, England)

BACKGROUND: Many theories have been proposed to explain the high levels of 'excess' mortality (i.e. higher mortality over and above that explained by differences in socio-economic circumstances) shown in Scotland-and, especially, in its largest city, Glasgow-compared with elsewhere in the UK. One such proposal relates to differences in optimism, given previously reported evidence of the health benefits of an optimistic outlook. METHODS: A representative survey of Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester was undertaken in 2011.

Author(s): 
Walsh, David
McCartney, Gerry
McCullough, Sarah
van der Pol, Marjon
Buchanan, Duncan
Jones, Russell
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association

What I believe to be the essential contribution of this group of analysts may be summarized as follows. The role of object relations has always been a prominent theme in analytic thought and has become much more so in recent years. Instead of grafting the implications of relations onto a theory that started from a different standpoint, what the British group has done is to show that the development of the person has to be conceived as the progressive differentiation of a structure from a unitary matrix that itself interacts at a holistic personal level from the start.

Author(s): 
Sutherland, J. D.
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

The apocalyptic threat of AIDS, combined with recent ethnological developments, is promoting an anthropological "rediscovery of sex." If this rediscovery is to have important and lasting effects on the development of theory, a stock-taking is in order--one which examines anthropology's historical, methodological, and practical relationship to the study of sexual behavior.

Author(s): 
Tuzin, D.

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