United Kingdom

Publication Title: 
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

Professor Archibald Cochrane (1909-1988) is considered to be the originator of the idea of evidence-based medicine in our era. With his landmark book 'Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health services' he managed to inspire and positively influence the medical society with respect to the proper assessment of reliable evidence for the provision of the best medical care. His vision combined with his scientific achievements can be considered as the foundation of the Cochrane Collaboration; named after him in recognition of and gratitude for his pioneering work.

Author(s): 
Stavrou, Antonio
Challoumas, Dimitrios
Dimitrakakis, Georgios
Publication Title: 
Annals of Transplantation

BACKGROUND: Incentives and reciprocity have been widely debated within the literature as an alternative to altruism to motivate the public to register and consent to organ donation. This pilot study was the first to examine the views of the UK Polish migrant community toward these issues. MATERIAL/METHODS: One-to-one and small group interviews were conducted in English and Polish to collect data. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and interviews in Polish were translated into English.

Author(s): 
Sharp, Chloe
Randhawa, Gurch
Publication Title: 
Nursing Standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain): 1987)

The NHS runs on goodwill. Every day thousands of nurses, midwives and healthcare support workers work extra hours, skip breaks and go the extra mile to keep the health service running. In return, you may receive a 'thank you' from your manager or expressions of gratitude from patients, but rarely will you see any extra in your pay packet.

Author(s): 
Scott, Graham
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Community Nursing

Gifts are often given as tokens of gratitude by grateful patients to district nurses. However, there are circumstances where the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), as the professional regulator, and the courts, have held that accepting gifts, large or small, from vulnerable adults is dishonest and amounts to professional misconduct and even theft. Richard Griffith discusses the circumstances where a district nurse who accepts a gift can face a fitness-to-practise investigation and an allegation of theft.

Author(s): 
Griffith, Richard
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London

A limited no-fault scheme along the lines in the report would be a means by which reasonable levels of compensation could be provided promptly to the victims of medical intervention at relatively low administrative cost and with relative accessibility for those involved. However, the scheme would need to be carefully costed before implementation. This means that detailed consideration be given to the likely effects on the numbers of people claiming compensation, and the levels of compensation payable, as well as the administrative costs involved.

Publication Title: 
Health Physics

The assumption that any additional exposure to ionizing radiation leads to an increase in the risk of stochastic health effects implies that some cases of these effects will be caused by exposure incurred occupationally. The main health effect expected to arise in the exposed individuals is cancer. Such radiation-induced cancers cannot be distinguished from the far larger number of background cancers, and, therefore, causation must be assessed statistically.

Author(s): 
Wakeford, R.
Antell, B. A.
Leigh, W. J.
Publication Title: 
Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy

BACKGROUND: Citizen deliberation is a prominent theme in health policy literature. It is believed that citizens who deliberate may influence the setting of public health-care priorities. Currently, in some jurisdictions, citizens are members of community health boards, and thus have a forum to articulate and share values that could affect the reduction of health inequalities within their communities. However, there is little conceptual clarity on the character of citizen deliberation, or, more specifically, how citizens may articulate and share values.

Author(s): 
Murphy, Norma Jean
Publication Title: 
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

BACKGROUND: The extent to which welfare states may influence health outcomes has not been explored. It was hypothesised that policies which target the poor are associated with greater income inequality in oral health quality of life than those that provide earnings-related benefits to all citizens. METHODS: Data were from nationally representative surveys in the UK (n = 4064), Finland (n = 5078), Germany (n = 1454) and Australia (n = 2292) conducted from 1998 to 2002. The typology of Korpi and Palme classifies these countries into four different welfare states.

Author(s): 
Sanders, A. E.
Slade, G. D.
John, M. T.
Steele, J. G.
Suominen-Taipale, A. L.
Lahti, S.
Nuttall, N. M.
Allen, P. Finbarr
Publication Title: 
Journal of Advanced Nursing

This paper discusses the goals and strategies used by nurses to achieve professional status. It describes the several interest groups in nursing and identifies the plurality of their goals and the sometimes conflicting strategies used by them. The paper illustrates the constraints experienced by the Royal College of Nursing in policy making and proposes a pluralist structure as a basis for future planning.

Author(s): 
White, R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Medical Ethics
Author(s): 
Downie, R. S.

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