United States Food and Drug Administration

Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Up to 18% of people in industrialised societies are mildly affected by chronic tinnitus, and 0.5% report tinnitus having a severe effect on their daily life. Tinnitus can be associated with hearing loss, acoustic neuromas, drug toxicity, ear diseases, and depression. Tinnitus can last for many years, and can interfere with sleep and concentration. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for chronic tinnitus?

Author(s): 
Savage, Julian
Cook, Stephanie
Waddell, Angus
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) affects between 0.006% and 3% of the population depending on the criteria of definition used, with women being at higher risk than men. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review).

Author(s): 
Reid, Steven F.
Chalder, Trudie
Cleare, Anthony
Hotopf, Matthew
Wessely, Simon
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Warts are caused by the human papilloma virus, of which there are over 100 types, which probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)?

Author(s): 
Nai-Ming, Luk
Yuk-Ming William, Tang
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) affects between 0.006% and 3% of the population depending on the criteria of definition used, with women being at higher risk than men. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review).

Author(s): 
Reid, Steven
Chalder, Trudie
Cleare, Anthony
Hotopf, Matthew
Wessely, Simon
Publication Title: 
Annals of Internal Medicine

Homeopathy is a 200-year-old therapeutic system that uses small doses of various substances to stimulate autoregulatory and self-healing processes. Homeopathy selects substances by matching a patient's symptoms with symptoms produced by these substances in healthy individuals. Medicines are prepared by serial dilution and shaking, which proponents claim imprints information into water. Although many conventional physicians find such notions implausible, homeopathy had a prominent place in 19th-century health care and has recently undergone a worldwide revival.

Author(s): 
Jonas, Wayne B.
Kaptchuk, Ted J.
Linde, Klaus
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Lateral pain in the elbow affects up to 3% of the population, and is considered an overload injury of the extensor tendons of the forearm where they attach at the lateral epicondyle. Although usually self-limiting, symptoms may persist for over 1 year in up to 20% of people. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for tennis elbow?

Author(s): 
Buchbinder, Rachelle
Green, Sally Elizabeth
Struijs, Peter
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is a disorder that evolves from episodic tension-type headache, with daily or very frequent episodes of headache lasting minutes to days. It affects 4.1% of the general population in the USA, and is more prevalent in women (up to 65% of cases). METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache?

Author(s): 
Silver, Nicholas
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is a disorder that evolves from episodic tension-type headache, with daily or very frequent episodes of headache lasting minutes to days. It affects 4.1% of the general population in the USA, and is more prevalent in women (up to 65% of cases). METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache?

Author(s): 
Silver, Nicholas
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: More than half of pregnant women suffer from nausea and vomiting, which typically begins by the 4th week and disappears by the 16th week of pregnancy. The cause of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is unknown, but may be due to the rise in human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration. In 1 in 200 women, the condition progresses to hyperemesis gravidarum, which is characterised by prolonged and severe nausea and vomiting, dehydration, and weight loss.

Author(s): 
Festin, Mario
Publication Title: 
The American journal of bioethics: AJOB

The Catholic Church proscribes methods of birth control other than sexual abstinence. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes abstinence as an acceptable method of birth control in research studies, some pharmaceutical companies mandate the use of artificial contraceptive techniques to avoid pregnancy as a condition for participation in their studies. These requirements are unacceptable at Catholic health care institutions, leading to conflicts among institutional review boards, clinical investigators, and sponsors.

Author(s): 
Casey, Murray Joseph
O'Brien, Richard
Rendell, Marc
Salzman, Todd

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