OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin for the treatment of uremic pruritus (UP). DATA SOURCES: Literature retrieval was accessed through MEDLINE (1950-March week 3, 2008; In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, April 1, 2008) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-March 2008) using the terms gabapentin, pruritus, itch, urem$ (truncated), dialysis, and kidney disease. The Google Scholar search engine was used to identify articles that MEDLINE did not capture with the described search terms.
Uremic pruritus (UP) is a common and bothersome symptom in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that does not always respond to conventional care. Acupuncture is frequently used for the treatment of a wide range of conditions, but its effects on UP in ESRD patients are unclear. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture for UP in patients with ESRD. We searched 16 electronic databases from their inception to November 2009. All prospective clinical studies of needle acupuncture for UP in hemodialysis patients with ESRD were included regardless of their design.
Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (cC) is a cysteine protease inhibitor that may influence immune response. Our aim was to test the effect of a high concentration of cC, characteristic for uremic patients, on neutrophil (PMN) apoptosis and respiratory burst, as well as the cC secretion from PMNs stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. MATERIAL/METHODS: PMNs from 35 healthy volunteers aged 27-61 years were cultured in presence of cC, IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. The percentage of apoptotic cells based on DNA depletion, Fas, FasL and caspase -3 expression were assessed.
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
The effect of renal failure upon the "in vitro" binding of midazolam, a new water-soluble short-acting benzodiazepine, has been studied in man. An increase of its free fraction (ranging from 2.52 to 5.17%) in serum from uremic patients was observed. A similar situation was originated in rabbits by administering uranyl nitrate (2 mg/Kg i.v.) and posterior hypnosis with midazolam.
Chitosan and alkalinizing agents can decrease morbidity and mortality in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether this holds true in dog is not known. Objective of the study was to determine whether a commercial dietary supplement containing chitosan, phosphate binders, and alkalinizing agents (Renal), compared to placebo, reduces mortality rate due to uremic crises in dogs with spontaneous CKD, fed a renal diet (RD). A masked RCCT was performed including 31 azotemic dogs with spontaneous CKD.
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
BACKGROUND: Uraemic pruritus is a common problem in end-stage renal failure patients. Traditional therapies produce marginal or no results. Acupuncture has been reported to be effective. The aim of this randomized, controlled study was to validate a single acupoint for relieving uraemic pruritus. METHODS: We randomized 40 patients with refractory uraemic pruritus into two groups. In group 1 (n = 20), acupuncture was applied unilaterally at the Quchi (LI11) acupoint thrice weekly for 1 month.