Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
BACKGROUND: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem among women. However, comparative effectiveness strategies for managing recurrent UTIs are lacking. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of management of women experiencing ?3 UTIs per year. We then developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo model of recurrent UTI for each management strategy with ?2 adequate trials published. We simulated a cohort that experienced 3 UTIs/year and a secondary cohort that experienced 8 UTIs/year.
Nutraceuticals are known to have numerous health and disease preventing properties. Recent studies suggest that extracts containing cranberry may have anti-aging benefits. However, little is known about whether and how cranberry by itself promotes longevity and healthspan in any organism. Here we examined the effect of a cranberry only extract on lifespan and healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Supplementation of the diet with cranberry extract (CBE) increased the lifespan in C. elegans in a concentration-dependent manner. Cranberry also increased tolerance of C.
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice has been used for urinary tract infections for approximately 50 years. Recent research suggests that this botanical blocks adherence of pathogenic E. coli to urinary tract cells, thus preventing infection. While current evidence indicates that proanthocyanidins are responsible for this activity, these compounds may not reach the urinary tract; thus further investigation is warranted. Fractionation of cranberry juice concentrate was guided by a recently published antiadherence assay, and the resulting fractions were phytochemically characterized.
PURPOSE: Cranberry proanthocyanidins have been identified as possible inhibitors of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial cells. However, little is known about the dose range of this effect. Furthermore, it has not been studied directly in the urogenital system. To address these issues we tested the effect of a cranberry powder and proanthocyanidin extract on adherence of a P-fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli isolate to 2 new urogenital model systems, namely primary cultured bladder epithelial cells and vaginal epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: E.
The health benefits of cranberries have long been recognized. However, the mechanisms behind its function are poorly understood. We have investigated the iron-binding properties of quercetin, the major phenolic phytochemical present in cranberries, and other selected phenolic compounds (chrysin, 3-hydroxyflavone, 3',4'-dihydroxy flavone, rutin, and flavone) in aqueous media using UV/vis, NMR and EPR spectroscopies and ESI-Mass spectrometry.
A preparative analytical method was developed to selectively remove ("chemically subtract") a single compound from a complex mixture, such as a natural extract or fraction, in a single step. The proof of concept is demonstrated by the removal of pure benzoic acid (BA) from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) juice fractions that exhibit anti-adhesive effects versus uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Chemical subtraction of BA, representing a major constituent of the fractions, eliminates the potential in vitro interference of the bacteriostatic effect of BA on the E.
The chemopreventive efficacy of cranberry juice concentrate in an experimental model of urinary bladder cancer was evaluated using female Fischer-344 rats. The animals received N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for a period of eight weeks. Cranberry juice concentrate was administered at doses of 1.0 or 0.5 ml/rat/day beginning one week after the final OH-BBN treatment and continuing until the end of the study. The urinary bladders of all the rats were weighed and examined grossly for lesions, and all masses were submitted for pathological evaluation.
Polyphenolic extracts of the principal flavonoid classes present in cranberry were screened in vitro for cytotoxicity against solid tumor cells lines, identifying two fractions composed principally of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with potential anticancer activity. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of the proanthocyanidins (PACs) fractions indicated the presence of A-type PACs with 1-4 linkages containing between 2-8 epicatechin units with a maximum of 1 epigallocatechin unit.
Cranberry juice consumption is often recommended along with low-dose oral antibiotics for prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Because multiple membrane transporters are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of beta-lactam antibiotics, we evaluated the potential risk of pharmacokinetic interactions between cranberry juice and the beta-lactams amoxicillin (amoxicilline) and cefaclor.
Cranberry crude extracts, in various vehicles, have shown inhibitory effects on the formation of oral biofilms in vitro. The presence of proanthocyanidins (PAC) in cranberry extracts has been linked to biological activities against specific virulence attributes of Streptococcus mutans, e.g. the inhibition of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of a highly purified and chemically defined cranberry PAC fraction on S.