Valine

Publication Title: 
JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association

CONTEXT: Individuals with exceptional longevity have a lower incidence and/or significant delay in the onset of age-related disease, and their family members may inherit biological factors that modulate aging processes and disease susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To identify specific biological and genetic factors that are associated with or reliably define a human longevity phenotype.

Author(s): 
Barzilai, Nir
Atzmon, Gil
Schechter, Clyde
Schaefer, Ernst J.
Cupples, Adrienne L.
Lipton, Richard
Cheng, Suzanne
Shuldiner, Alan R.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Subjects with exceptional longevity have a lower incidence and/or significant delay in the onset of age-related disease, and their family members may inherit biological factors that modulate aging processes and disease susceptibility. In a case control study, we aim to determine phenotype and genotype of exceptional longevity in a genetically homogenous population (Ashkenazi Jews), and their offspring, while an age-matched control group of Ashkenazi Jews was used as control groups.

Author(s): 
Atzmon, Gil
Rincon, Marielisa
Rabizadeh, Pegah
Barzilai, Nir
Publication Title: 
JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association

CONTEXT: Polymorphisms in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene have been associated with exceptional longevity and lower cardiovascular risk, but associations with memory decline and dementia risk are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at CETP codon 405 (isoleucine to valine V405; SNP rs5882) is associated with a lower rate of memory decline and lower risk of incident dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD).

Author(s): 
Sanders, Amy E.
Wang, Cuiling
Katz, Mindy
Derby, Carol A.
Barzilai, Nir
Ozelius, Laurie
Lipton, Richard B.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable, neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in early childhood. Genes involved in neuronal development and growth are, thus, important etiological candidates and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD. BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family and is involved in the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in the developing brain (of relevance because drugs that block the dopamine transporter can be effective therapeutically).

Author(s): 
Kent, L.
Green, E.
Hawi, Z.
Kirley, A.
Dudbridge, F.
Lowe, N.
Raybould, R.
Langley, K.
Bray, N.
Fitzgerald, M.
Owen, M. J.
O'Donovan, M. C.
Gill, M.
Thapar, A.
Craddock, N.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Bipolar disorder (BD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur among psychiatric patients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) function is associated with core characteristics of both BD and PTSD.

Author(s): 
Rakofsky, J. J.
Ressler, K. J.
Dunlop, B. W.
Publication Title: 
Epigenetics

Epigenetic mechanisms can mediate gene-environment interactions relevant for complex disorders. The BDNF gene is crucial for development and brain plasticity, is sensitive to environmental stressors, such as hypoxia, and harbors the functional SNP rs6265 (Val(66)Met), which creates or abolishes a CpG dinucleotide for DNA methylation.

Author(s): 
Ursini, Gianluca
Cavalleri, Tommaso
Fazio, Leonardo
Angrisano, Tiziana
Iacovelli, Luisa
Porcelli, Annamaria
Maddalena, Giancarlo
Punzi, Giovanna
Mancini, Marina
Gelao, Barbara
Romano, Raffaella
Masellis, Rita
Calabrese, Francesca
Rampino, Antonio
Taurisano, Paolo
Di Giorgio, Annabella
Keller, Simona
Tarantini, Letizia
Sinibaldi, Lorenzo
Quarto, Tiziana
Popolizio, Teresa
Caforio, Grazia
Blasi, Giuseppe
Riva, Marco A.
De Blasi, Antonio
Chiariotti, Lorenzo
Bollati, Valentina
Bertolino, Alessandro
Publication Title: 
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Findings from twin studies yield heritability estimates of 0.50 for prosocial behaviours like empathy, cooperativeness and altruism. First molecular genetic studies underline the influence of polymorphisms located on genes coding for the receptors of the neuropeptides, oxytocin and vasopressin. However, the proportion of variance explained by these gene loci is rather low indicating that additional genetic variants must be involved. Pharmacological studies show that the dopaminergic system interacts with oxytocin and vasopressin.

Author(s): 
Reuter, Martin
Frenzel, Clemens
Walter, Nora T.
Markett, Sebastian
Montag, Christian
Publication Title: 
Obstetrics and Gynecology

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether L-isoleucine was effective in the treatment of hot flushes and whether L-isoleucine, L-valine, or the combination of both amino acids reduced fasting serum homocysteine. METHODS: After a 1-week baseline period, 100 postmenopausal women experiencing at least five moderate-severe hot flushes per day were randomized with equal probability to one of four groups (phase 1/phase 2): placebo/L-valine, placebo/L-valine and L-isoleucine, L-isoleucine/L-valine, and L-isoleucine/L-valine and L-isoleucine. Phase 1 was 12 weeks long, and phase 2 was 10 weeks long.

Author(s): 
Guttuso, Thomas
McDermott, Michael P.
Su, Haiyan
Kieburtz, Karl
Publication Title: 
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association

BACKGROUND: Current research on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) suggests many important factors; metabolic disturbance, haemodynamic abnormity, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, innate immune system activation and podocyte lesion. Triptolide, which is active diterpene purified from the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF), has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, immunosuppressive and podocyte-protective effects. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effects of triptolide on DN in db/db diabetic mice and studied the potential mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Gao, Qing
Shen, Wenwen
Qin, Weisong
Zheng, Chunxia
Zhang, Mingchao
Zeng, Caihong
Wang, Shengyu
Wang, Jianping
Zhu, Xiaodong
Liu, Zhihong
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