Vasoconstrictor Agents

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: There are several Cochrane systematic reviews looking at postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) prophylaxis in the third stage of labour and another Cochrane review investigating the timing of prophylactic uterotonics in the third stage of labour (i.e. before or after delivery of the placenta). There are, however, no Cochrane reviews looking at the use of interventions given purely after delivery of the placenta.

Author(s): 
Yaju, Yukari
Kataoka, Yaeko
Eto, Hiromi
Horiuchi, Shigeko
Mori, Rintaro
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

BACKGROUND: Propofol is reported to reduce both sympathetic and parasympathetic tone; however, it is not clear whether the changes in heart rate variability are associated with depth of anesthesia. The purposes of the present study were (1) to evaluate the changes in heart rate variability at different depths of hypnosis and (2) to compare the effects of propofol on heart rate variability with that of sevoflurane. METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly allocated into the propofol or sevoflurane for induction of anesthesia. The depth of hypnosis was monitored by the Bispectral Index (BIS).

Author(s): 
Kanaya, Noriaki
Hirata, Naoyuki
Kurosawa, Saori
Nakayama, Masayasu
Namiki, Akiyoshi
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

We investigated a causal role for coronary endothelial dysfunction in development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension and right heart hypertrophy in rats. Significant increases in pulmonary pressure and right ventricular weight did not occur until 3 wk after 60 mg/kg MCT injection (34 +/- 4 vs. 19 +/- 2 mmHg and 37 +/- 2 vs. 25 +/- 1% septum + left ventricular weight in controls, respectively).

Author(s): 
Sun, Xiaowei
Ku, David D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Vascular Surgery

BACKGROUND: Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides released from neutrophils that exhibit powerful antimicrobial activities. Because inflammation, including neutrophil infiltration and release of defensins, may play an important role in atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases, we determined whether alpha-defensin could cause endothelial dysfunction, a major initial event of atherosclerosis, in porcine coronary arteries. METHODS: Porcine coronary arteries were sliced into 5-mm rings and treated with different concentrations of human recombinant alpha-defensin for 24 hours.

Author(s): 
Kougias, Panagiotis
Chai, Hong
Lin, Peter H.
Yao, Qizhi
Lumsden, Alan B.
Chen, Changyi
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) stimulates neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity, but the influence on endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity and vascular NO bioavailability remains unclear. We used a bioassay employing rat aortic rings to evaluate vascular NO bioavailability. HBO exposure to 2.8 atm absolute (ATA) in vitro decreased ACh relaxation.

Author(s): 
Hink, Jonas
Thom, Stephen R.
Simonsen, Ulf
Rubin, Inger
Jansen, Erik
Publication Title: 
Journal of Biomedical Science

Perinatal taurine depletion leads to several physiological impairments in adult life, in part, due to taurine's effects on the renin-angiotensin system, a crucial regulator of growth and differentiation during early life. The present study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine depletion predisposes adult female rats to impaired baroreceptor control of arterial pressure by altering the renin-angiotensin system. Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed normal rat chow and from conception to weaning drank 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or water alone (Control, C).

Author(s): 
Thaeomor, Atcharaporn
Wyss, J. Michael
Jirakulsomchok, Dusit
Roysommuti, Sanya
Publication Title: 
Journal of Critical Care

PURPOSE: The study's objective was to determine the proportion and patient characteristics of patients in vasopressor-dependent septic shock who presented without lactatemia. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients presenting to an urban tertiary-care emergency department between December 2007 and September 2008 was conducted. Patients with a final diagnosis of septic shock requiring vasopressors were divided, based on initial lactate, to nonlactate expressors (0-2.4 mmol/L), intermediate (2.5-3.9 mmol/L), and high (>4.0 mmol/L) lactate groups.

Author(s): 
Dugas, Andrea Freyer
Mackenhauer, Julie
Salciccioli, Justin D.
Cocchi, Michael N.
Gautam, Shiva
Donnino, Michael W.
Publication Title: 
Lancet

Induction of the diving reflex, by immersion of the face in cold water (2 degrees C) while the breath was held, converted paroxysmal atrial tachycardia to sinus rhythm within 15-35 seconds in seven patients (aged 22-66). Four had histories of heart attacks that had previously required vasopressor therapy, and two had been digitalised; three had no history of prior paroxysmal atrial tachycardia or heart-disease.

Author(s): 
Wildenthal, K.
Leshin, S. J.
Atkins, J. M.
Skelton, C. L.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Rats of the JCR:LA-cp strain, which are homozygous for the cp gene (cp/cp), are obese, insulin-resistant, and hyperinsulinemic. They exhibit associated micro- and macrovascular disease and end-stage ischemic myocardial lesions and are highly stress sensitive. We subjected male cp/cp rats to pair feeding (providing the rats each day with the amount of food eaten by matched freely fed animals), a procedure that alters the diurnal feeding pattern, leading to a state of intermittent caloric restriction.

Author(s): 
Russell, James C.
Proctor, Spencer D.
Kelly, Sandra E.
Brindley, David N.
Publication Title: 
Hypertension

Angiotensin II-induced cardiac damage is associated with oxidative stress-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction. Caloric restriction (CR), a dietary regimen that increases mitochondrial activity and cellular stress resistance, could provide protection. We tested that hypothesis in double transgenic rats harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes (dTGRs). CR (60% of energy intake for 4 weeks) decreased mortality in dTGRs.

Author(s): 
Finckenberg, Piet
Eriksson, Ove
Baumann, Marc
Merasto, Saara
Lalowski, Maciej M.
Levijoki, Jouko
Haasio, Kristiina
Kytö, Ville
Muller, Dominik N.
Luft, Friedrich C.
Oresic, Matej
Mervaala, Eero

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