Vertebrates

Publication Title: 
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, the basic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha.

Author(s): 
Bhat, Sathyanarayana
Udupa, Kumaraswamy
Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

Calorie restriction (CR) is a non-genetic manipulation that reliably results in extended lifespan of several species ranging from yeast to dogs. The lifespan extension effect of CR has been strongly associated with an increased level and activation of the silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) histone deacetylase and its mammalian ortholog Sirt1. This association led to the search for potential Sirt1-activating, life-extending molecules. This review briefly outlines the experimental findings on resveratrol and other dietary activators of Sirt1.

Author(s): 
Allard, Joanne S.
Perez, Evelyn
Zou, Sige
de Cabo, Rafael
Publication Title: 
Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology

The relationship of oxidative stress with maximum life span (MLSP) in different vertebrate species is reviewed. In all animal groups the endogenous levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues negatively correlate with MLSP and the most longevous animals studied in each group, pigeon or man, show the minimum levels of antioxidants. A possible evolutionary reason for this is that longevous animals produce oxygen radicals at a low rate. This has been analysed at the place where more than 90% of oxygen is consumed in the cell, the mitochondria.

Author(s): 
Perez-Campo, R.
LÛpez-Torres, M.
Cadenas, S.
Rojas, C.
Barja, G.
Publication Title: 
Nature Chemical Biology

Gut microbiota is found in virtually any metazoan, from invertebrates to vertebrates. It has long been believed that gut microbiota, more specifically, the activity of the microbiome and its metabolic products, directly influence a variety of aspects in metazoan physiology. However, the exact molecular relationship among microbe-derived gut metabolites, host signaling pathways, and host physiology remains to be elucidated. Here we review recent discoveries regarding the molecular links between gut metabolites and host physiology in different invertebrate and vertebrate animal models.

Author(s): 
Lee, Won-Jae
Hase, Koji
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Comparative studies of aging are often difficult to interpret because of the different factors that tend to correlate with longevity. We used the AnAge database to study these factors, particularly metabolism and developmental schedules, previously associated with longevity in vertebrate species. Our results show that, after correcting for body mass and phylogeny, basal metabolic rate does not correlate with longevity in eutherians or birds, although it negatively correlates with marsupial longevity and time to maturity.

Author(s): 
de Magalh„es, Jo„o Pedro
Costa, Joana
Church, George M.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Among the notable trends seen in this year's highlights in mammalian aging research is an awakening of interest in the assessment of age-related measures of mouse health in addition to the traditional focus on longevity. One finding of note is that overexpression of telomerase extended life and improved several indices of health in mice that had previously been genetically rendered cancer resistant. In another study, resveratrol supplementation led to amelioration of several degenerative conditions without affecting mouse lifespan.

Author(s): 
Austad, Steven
Publication Title: 
Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology

To counter recent claims that sociobiology is in disarray or requires reformulation, I discuss the semantics, theory, and data that underlie the field. A historical perspective is used to identify the cause of current debates. I argue that semantic precision is required in discussing terms such as kin selection, group selection, and altruism, but once care is taken, the objections to the unity of theoretical sociobiology largely evaporate.

Author(s): 
Foster, K. R.
Publication Title: 
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, the basic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha.

Author(s): 
Bhat, Sathyanarayana
Udupa, Kumaraswamy
Publication Title: 
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, the basic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha.

Author(s): 
Bhat, Sathyanarayana
Udupa, Kumaraswamy
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