Vietnam

Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Plasma antimalarial activity following oral artesunate or dihydroartemisinin (DHA) treatment was measured by a bioassay in 18 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The mean antimalarial activity in terms of the bioavailability of DHA relative to that of artesunate did not differ significantly from 1, suggesting that DHA can be formulated to be an acceptable oral alternative to artesunate.

Author(s): 
Newton, Paul N.
van Vugt, Michèle
Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya
Siriyanonda, Duangsuda
Rasameesoroj, Maneerat
Teerapong, Pramote
Ruangveerayuth, Ronatrai
Slight, Thra
Nosten, François
Suputtamongkol, Yupin
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
White, Nicholas J.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax has not yet occurred in Vietnam. The efficacy of artemisinin for P. vivax was not established. We conducted a double-blind randomized study involving 240 inpatients with P. vivax malaria who received artemisinin (40 mg/kg over 3 days) plus placebo chloroquine (Art) or chloroquine (25 mg/kg over 3 days) plus placebo artemisinin (Chl). Patients were followed up with weekly blood smears for 28 days. In each group 113 cases were analysed. All patients recovered rapidly.

Author(s): 
Phan, Giao T.
de Vries, Peter J.
Tran, Binh Q.
Le, Hung Q.
Nguyen, Nam V.
Nguyen, Thang V.
Heisterkamp, Siem H.
Kager, Piet A.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

We have analyzed artemisinin sensitivity in Plasmodium falciparum isolates obtained from patients in South Vietnam and show that artemisinin sensitivity does not differ before and after drug treatment. There was an increase in the level of mefloquine resistance in the isolates after drug treatment that was concomitant with a decrease in chloroquine resistance, suggesting that treatment with artemisinin has selected for increased mefloquine resistance. Mutations in the pfmdr1 gene, previously shown to be associated with sensitivity to mefloquine, were selected against.

Author(s): 
Ngo, Thanh
Duraisingh, Manoj
Reed, Michael
Hipgrave, David
Biggs, Beverley
Cowman, Alan F.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

The effectiveness of chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine administered with artesunate for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria was assessed in 2 Vietnamese provinces where the sensitivity of parasites in vitro to conventional therapies had increased with the removal of drug pressure. In the province of Dac Lac, where potential malaria exposure begins at birth, 57 subjects (mean age, 9.6 years) were randomized to receive artesunate-chloroquine (group 1) or artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (group 2).

Author(s): 
Nguyen, Mai Huong
Davis, Timothy M. E.
Cox-Singh, Janet
Hewitt, Sean
Tran, Quoc Toan
Tran, Bach Kim
Nguyen, Thi Hanh
Vo, Nhu Phuong
Doan, Hanh Nhan
Le, Dinh Cong
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

To study the efficacy, tolerance, population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of artesunate followed by mefloquine at various intervals, 360 patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria received 4 mg/kg of artesunate and thereafter 15 mg/kg of mefloquine simultaneously (group A), after 8 hours (after group B), and after 24 hours (group C). Three dosages were completed with placebo. Follow-up was 28 days. All patients recovered rapidly except one case of failure within the first 24 hours. Mefloquine pharmacokinetics was similar in the three regimens.

Author(s): 
Hung, Le Q.
de Vries, Peter J.
Binh, Tran Q.
Giao, Phan T.
Nam, Nguyen V.
Holman, R.
Kager, Piet A.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The first-dose pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular (i.m.) artesunate (ARTS; 2.4 mg/kg immediately [stat], followed by 1.2 mg/kg i.m. daily) and artemether (ARM; 3.2 mg/kg i.m. stat, followed by 1.6 mg/kg i.m. daily) were compared in Vietnamese adults with severe falciparum malaria. A total of 19 patients were studied; 9 received ARTS, and 10 received ARM.

Author(s): 
Hien, T. T.
Davis, T. M. E.
Chuong, L. V.
Ilett, K. F.
Sinh, D. X. T.
Phu, N. H.
Agus, C.
Chiswell, G. M.
White, N. J.
Farrar, J.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) in Vietnam is based on application of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), spraying of insecticides and early microscopic diagnosis of malaria and treatment (EDTM) with artemisinin drugs. This study explores the implementation of the NMCP at provincial level and its impact on malaria incidence (mi) and prevalence in Binh Thuan in southern Vietnam.

Author(s): 
Van Nam, Nguyen
de Vries, Peter J.
Van Toi, Le
Nagelkerke, Nico
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria (EDTM) is a key component of malaria control. The success of EDTM depends on health seeking behaviour and the quality of the health service. This study assessed self-diagnosis, treatment and treatment delay after the introduction of EDTM in 1993. In southern Vietnam EDTM comprises microscopic diagnosis and free treatment with artemisinin derivatives at public health facilities. Until 2001, 1698 questionnaires had been completed by patients participating in randomized treatment trials of uncomplicated malaria.

Author(s): 
Giao, Phan T.
Vries, Peter J.
Binh, Tran Q.
Nam, Nguyen V.
Kager, Piet A.
Publication Title: 
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases

The clinical efficacy of the monotherapy involving the administration of a high dose of dihydroartemisinin (DHA 900 mg) for 5 days was compared with that of the combination regimen (DHA 600 mg + mefloquine [MQ] 750 mg) in an open randomized study in 90 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the southern part of Viet Nam. Patients were randomly treated with the DHA-5 day monotherapy regimen (300, 300, 100, 100, and 100 mg given at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h) or the DHA-MQ combination regimen (300 mg DHA at 0 h, then 300 mg DHA plus 750 mg MQ at 24 h).

Author(s): 
Diem Thuy, Le Thi
Na-Bangchang, Kesara
Hung, Le Ngoc
Chong, Mieu Tieu
Van Thang, Nguyen
Van Binh, Nguyen
Danh, Phan Thi
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Human fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica is an increasing global problem. The mainstay of current treatment is triclabendazole, but resistance in animals has been described, and it is not available in many countries. The antimalarial artesunate has an excellent safety profile, and there is increasing evidence of its efficacy against other parasites both in vitro and in vivo. We performed a study to investigate the usefulness of artesunate in symptomatic human fascioliasis; 100 patients were enrolled.

Author(s): 
Hien, Tran Tinh
Truong, Ng Thanh
Minh, Nguyen Hoang
Dat, Hoang Dinh
Dung, Nguyen Thi
Hue, Nguyen Thi
Dung, Tran Kim
Tuan, Phung Quoc
Campbell, James I.
Farrar, Jeremy J.
Day, Jeremy N.

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