Violence

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour is a significant part of problem behaviours presented by people with intellectual disabilities. Prevalence rates of up to 50% have been reported in the literature, depending on the population sampled. Such behaviours often run a long-term course and are a major cause of social exclusion. This is an update of a previously published systematic review (see Hassiotis 2004; Hassiotis 2008).

Author(s): 
Ali, Afia
Hall, Ian
Blickwedel, Jessica
Hassiotis, Angela
Publication Title: 
Criminal behaviour and mental health: CBMH

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related violence is of major concern to society. Around half of all violent crimes are alcohol related, and yet interventions for alcohol-related violence are under-developed. Often, offenders receive treatment for substance use or violence, but not the two in nexus. AIM: My aim was to conduct a Rapid Evidence Assessment of interventions with a focus on treating established nonsexual violence in the context of alcohol use, to describe the content of these interventions, where they take place and their effectiveness in reducing alcohol problems and/or violence.

Author(s): 
McMurran, Mary
Publication Title: 
Translational Psychiatry

Prenatal exposure to maternal stress can have lifelong implications for psychological function, such as behavioral problems and even the development of mental illness. Previous research suggests that this is due to transgenerational epigenetic programming of genes operating in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). However, it is not known whether intrauterine exposure to maternal stress affects the epigenetic state of these genes beyond infancy.

Author(s): 
Radtke, K. M.
Ruf, M.
Gunter, H. M.
Dohrmann, K.
Schauer, M.
Meyer, A.
Elbert, T.
Publication Title: 
Family & Community Health

This article situates women's roles in community health care during violence in Uganda in the 1970s. It examines the lived reality of Catholic missionary sister nurses, midwives, and physicians on the ground where sisters administered health care to local communities. The goal is to examine how religious women worked with local individuals and families in community health during periods of violence and war. Catholic sisters claimed to be apolitical, yet their mission work widened to include political issues.

Author(s): 
Reckart, Madeline
Wall, Barbra Mann
Publication Title: 
Archives of General Psychiatry

We collected data on the extent of violent behavior among 55 male and female hospitalized juvenile delinquents during a period of three years. Violent behavior was correlated with the adolescent self-image and the ratings of staff and psychotherapists. We found that violent adolescent boys have a healthier self-image and are more liked by their therapists than nonviolent adolescent boys. For the female adolescents, we found the opposite.

Author(s): 
Offer, D.
Marohn, R. C.
Ostrov, E.
Publication Title: 
The Psychoanalytic Quarterly

Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is used to illustrate several connected theses regarding the relation of the couple to its surrounding social group: these include a couple's oedipal rebellion, the unconscious longing for and hatred of the idealized couple by the large group, the denial of aggression within the couple and its projection onto the group, the impotence of rationality and the conventionalization of sexuality in the large group, and the pervading dynamics of aggression in group formation.

Author(s): 
Kernberg, O. F.
Publication Title: 
The Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law

Five cases are presented wherein the violent person had had no substantial previous history of violence. Each of these people idealized the partner, were unable to accept the fact that the relationship was at an end and split off the anger. Frantic attempts to repair the relationship were made. Under various psychophysiological conditions, dyscontrol resulted in an outburst of violence toward the loved one.

Author(s): 
Bursten, B.
Publication Title: 
Adolescence

Ever since Wechsler observed that the adolescent sociopath characteristically scored higher on the performance section of the Wechsler IQ scale relative to the verbal section, psychologists have been debating its meaning. This study examines the relationships between P-V discrepancy scores, love deprivation, and juvenile delinquency among a sample of juvenile probationers. P greater than V scores were significantly related to love deprivation and violent crimes.

Author(s): 
Walsh, A.
Beyer, J. A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Psychology

This study explored the relationship among love deprivation, Performance greater than Verbal discrepancy, and violent crime in a sample of juvenile probationers. Love deprivation and P greater than V discrepancy was significantly related to violent delinquency after adjusting for the effects of both race and social class, two variables often closely associated with violent delinquency. Also, love deprivation was strongly related to P greater than V discrepancy.

Author(s): 
Walsh, A.
Beyer, J. A.
Petee, T. A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Genetic Psychology

This study sought to determine the combined effects of psychopathy, low intellectual functioning, and love deprivation on violent delinquency. Low-intellectual-functioning psychopaths were significantly more violent than were low or high-intellectual-functioning nonpsychopaths or high-intellectual-functioning psychopaths. Love deprivation was more strongly related to violence than was psychopathy/intellectual functioning, and severely love-deprived, low-intellectual-functioning psychopaths were the most violent.

Author(s): 
Walsh, A.
Beyer, J. A.
Petee, T. A.

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