Viral Plaque Assay

Publication Title: 
Antiviral Research

Traditional herbal medicines have been safely used for the treatment of various human diseases since ancient China. We selected 10 herbal extracts with therapeutic antiherpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity. Among these, Geum japonicum Thunb., Rhus javanica L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry, or Terminalia chebula Retzus showed a stronger anti-HSV-1 activity in combination with acyclovir than the other herbal extracts in vitro.

Author(s): 
Kurokawa, M.
Nagasaka, K.
Hirabayashi, T.
Uyama, S.
Sato, H.
Kageyama, T.
Kadota, S.
Ohyama, H.
Hozumi, T.
Namba, T.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Virology

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytotoxic doses in A549 human lung cells.

Author(s): 
Lin, Liang-Tzung
Chen, Ting-Ying
Chung, Chueh-Yao
Noyce, Ryan S.
Grindley, T. Bruce
McCormick, Craig
Lin, Ta-Chen
Wang, Guey-Horng
Lin, Chun-Ching
Richardson, Christopher D.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The antimalarial compound qinghaosu (artemisinin) was tested in vitro for the ability to inhibit plaque formation by Toxoplasma gondii in fibroblasts. Qinghaosu at 0.4 microgram/ml for 5 days eliminated all plaques and microscopic foci of T. gondii. At 1.3 micrograms/ml for 14 days, qinghaosu completely eliminated T. gondii. Pretreatment of host cells or T. gondii with qinghaosu had no effect on T. gondii growth. There was no apparent toxicity to human fibroblasts in long-term studies.

Author(s): 
Ke, O. Y.
Krug, E. C.
Marr, J. J.
Berens, R. L.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Limited structural information of drug targets, cellular toxicity possessed by lead compounds, and large amounts of potential leads are the major issues facing the design-oriented approach of discovering new leads. In an attempt to tackle these issues, we have developed a process of virtual screening based on the observation that conformational rearrangements of the dengue virus envelope protein are essential for the mediation of viral entry into host cells via membrane fusion.

Author(s): 
Yang, Jinn-Moon
Chen, Yan-Fu
Tu, Yu-Yin
Yen, Kuei-Rong
Yang, Yun-Liang
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Azadirachta indica A. Juss, popularly known as neem, has been extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine by Indian population for over 2000 years. It is used traditionally for the healing of various diseases. Natural products and their derivatives provide an excellent source for new anti-viral drugs. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aims at evaluating the activity of two polysaccharides (P1 and P2) isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica and their chemical sulfated derivatives (P1S and P2S) against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1).

Author(s): 
Faccin-Galhardi, Ligia Carla
Yamamoto, Kristie Aimi
Ray, Sayani
Ray, Bimalendu
Carvalho Linhares, Rosa Elisa
Nozawa, Carlos
Publication Title: 
Virology

We report the construction of a poliovirus genome [pPVM-VPg(3F4A)] harboring a double mutation in VPg. This mutant, in which the tyrosine and the threonine at residues 3 and 4 of the VPg region were replaced by phenylalanine and alanine, respectively, is lethal, that is, all RNA synthesis was abolished and no revertants could be isolated.

Author(s): 
Cao, X.
Wimmer, E.
Publication Title: 
Zhonghua Minguo Wei Sheng Wu Ji Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi = Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology

A provisional temperature-sensitive mutant, ProTs8, of influenza A/WSN (H0N1) virus was isolated from primary chicken embryo fibroblast culture inoculated with influenza A/WSN (H0N1) and incubated with medium 199, containing 2% chicken embryo extract, and 400 micrograms/ml of 5-fluorouracil. Its EOP (efficiency of plaquing) value between 39.5 degrees C and 33 degrees C was about 0.007, and the control was about 0.82. Through lowering the shut-off-temperature to 38 degrees C, we had successfully isolated two temperature-sensitive mutants, Ts8-38 and Ts8-37, from their parent, ProTs8.

Author(s): 
Chen, S. H.
Tai, F. H.
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