Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytotoxic doses in A549 human lung cells.
The mammalian ortholog of yeast Atg6/Vps30, Beclin 1, is an essential autophagy protein that has been linked to diverse biological processes, including immunity, development, tumor suppression, lifespan extension, and protection against certain cardiac and neurodegenerative diseases.
The low percentages of naÔve T cells commonly observed in elderly people are thought to be causally associated with mortality, primarily from infectious disease, and are taken as a hallmark of "immunosenescence". Whether low levels of naive cells actually do associate with mortality has, however, not been tested in longitudinal studies. Here, we present correlations between peripheral T-cell phenotypes and 8-year survival in individuals from the population-based prospective Leiden 85-plus Study.
Wild-type Indiana virus transcribed four 11- to 14-nucleotide-long, 5' N-gene mRNA sequences in vitro. The amount of oligonucleotides synthesized relative to leader by wild-type virions varied inversely with the salt concentration of the transcription reaction. Reduced oligonucleotide synthesis by nucleocapsids at all salt concentrations tested and a comparison of the proteins remaining bound to the template of nucleocapsids and virions transcribed in different NaCl concentrations suggested that the matrix (M) protein regulates oligonucleotide synthesis.
Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) and SB-derived polyphenols possess anti-proliferative activities in several cancers, including pancreatic cancer (PaCa). However, the precise molecular mechanisms have not been fully defined. SB extract and SB-derived polyphenols (wogonin, baicalin, and baicalein) were used to determine their anti-proliferative mechanisms. Baicalein significantly inhibited the proliferation of PaCa cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, whereas wogonin and baicalin exhibited a much less robust effect.
Nuclear receptors have a unique role in governing hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription and replication. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) plus peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) have been shown to support viral biosynthesis in nonhepatoma cells in the absence of additional liver-enriched transcription factors. However, the in vivo importance of these nuclear receptors in HBV biosynthesis has been investigated only to a limited extent.
BACKGROUND: Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities.
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitors were isolated from the rhizome of Polygala tenuifolia WILLD (PT, Polygalaceae), which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for inflammation, dementia, amnesia, neurasthenia and cancer, by activity-guided fractionation. For the assay of PI3K/Akt pathway, cytoprotective Tat-transduced CHME5 cells, which are the cytoprotective phenotype against lypopolysaccharide (LPS)/cycloheximide (CHX), were used.