Virus Internalization

Publication Title: 
Journal of Virology

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytotoxic doses in A549 human lung cells.

Author(s): 
Lin, Liang-Tzung
Chen, Ting-Ying
Chung, Chueh-Yao
Noyce, Ryan S.
Grindley, T. Bruce
McCormick, Craig
Lin, Ta-Chen
Wang, Guey-Horng
Lin, Chun-Ching
Richardson, Christopher D.
Publication Title: 
Virology Journal

Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell has been shown to be a highly effective inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. To identify its mechanism of action, we performed bioactivity-guided fractionation on Sargassum fusiforme mixture. Here, we report isolation of a bioactive fraction SP4-2 (S. fusiforme), which at 8 mug/ml inhibited HIV-1 infection by 86.9%, with IC50 value of 3.7 mug. That represents 230-fold enhancement of antiretroviral potency as compared to the whole extract. Inhibition was mediated against both CXCR4 (X4) and CCR5 (R5) tropic HIV-1.

Author(s): 
Paskaleva, Elena E.
Lin, Xudong
Duus, Karen
McSharry, James J.
Veille, Jean-Claude L.
Thornber, Carol
Liu, Yanze
Lee, David Yu-Wei
Canki, Mario
Publication Title: 
AIDS research and human retroviruses

The high rate of HIV-1 mutation and the frequent sexual transmission highlight the need for novel therapeutic modalities with broad activity against both CXCR4 (X4) and CCR5 (R5)-tropic viruses. We investigated a large number of natural products, and from Sargassum fusiforme we isolated and identified palmitic acid (PA) as a natural small bioactive molecule with activity against HIV-1 infection. Treatment with 100 microM PA inhibited both X4 and R5 independent infection in the T cell line up to 70%.

Author(s): 
Lee, David Y.-W.
Lin, Xudong
Paskaleva, Elena E.
Liu, Yanze
Puttamadappa, Shadakshara S.
Thornber, Carol
Drake, James R.
Habulin, Maja
Shekhtman, Alexander
Canki, Mario
Publication Title: 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)

Silymarin, an extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), and its purified flavonolignans have been recently shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we further characterized silymarin's antiviral actions. Silymarin had antiviral effects against hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc) infection that included inhibition of virus entry, RNA and protein expression, and infectious virus production.

Author(s): 
Wagoner, Jessica
Negash, Amina
Kane, Olivia J.
Martinez, Laura E.
Nahmias, Yaakov
Bourne, Nigel
Owen, David M.
Grove, Joe
Brimacombe, Claire
McKeating, Jane A.
Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle
Graf, Tyler N.
Oberlies, Nicholas H.
Lohmann, Volker
Cao, Feng
Tavis, John E.
Polyak, Stephen J.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Despite the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) against HIV-1, evidence indicates that residual infection persists in different cell types. Intensification of cART does not decrease the residual viral load or immune activation. cART restricts the synthesis of infectious virus but does not curtail HIV-1 transcription and translation from either the integrated or unintegrated viral genomes in infected cells. All treated patients with full viral suppression actually have low-level viremia.

Author(s): 
Mehla, Rajeev
Bivalkar-Mehla, Shalmali
Chauhan, Ashok
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