Viscera

Publication Title: 
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Hypnosis is a technique by which an individual can gain a degree of control over physiological as well as psychological function. This paper reviews the history of the phenomenon as well as the accumulating evidence that it is effective in relieving the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and improving the quality of life of sufferers. The physiological effects of hypnosis are also discussed coupled with an outline of how a hypnotherapy service might be provided.

Author(s): 
Whorwell, P. J.
Publication Title: 
Neurogastroenterology and Motility: The Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society

Modulating visceral sensation of the body is important to the understanding of emotion formation. Molecules that act during hypnosis and modify visceral pain perception are not known. We tested our hypothesis that hypnotic suggestion changes electrophysiological processing of visceroafferent signals in the human brain and that these conditions are in part dependent on histaminergic neurons.

Author(s): 
Watanabe, S.
Hattori, T.
Kanazawa, M.
Kano, M.
Fukudo, S.
Publication Title: 
Current Gastroenterology Reports

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is common in children, with as many as 80% of those being evaluated for chronic abdominal pain reporting symptoms of epigastric discomfort, nausea, or fullness. It is known that patients with persistent complaints have increased comorbidities such as depression and anxiety. The interaction with psychopathologic variables has been found to mediate the association between upper abdominal pain and gastric hypersensitivity. These observations suggest that abnormal central nervous system processing of gastric stimuli may be a relevant pathophysiologic mechanism in FD.

Author(s): 
Perez, Maria E.
Youssef, Nader N.
Publication Title: 
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

BACKGROUND: Gut-directed hypnotherapy can reduce IBS symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect remain unknown. AIM: To determine the effect of hypnotherapy and educational intervention on brain responses to cued rectal distensions in IBS patients. METHODS: Forty-four women with moderate-to-severe IBS and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were included. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during expectation and delivery of high- (45 mmHg) and low-intensity (15 mmHg) rectal distensions.

Author(s): 
Lowén, M. B. O.
Mayer, E. A.
Sjöberg, M.
Tillisch, K.
Naliboff, B.
Labus, J.
Lundberg, P.
Ström, M.
Engström, M.
Walter, S. A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Cognitive factors such as fear of pain and symptom-related anxiety play an important role in chronic pain states. The current study sought to characterize abnormalities in preparatory brain response before aversive pelvic visceral distention in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and their possible relationship to the consequences of distention. The brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to anticipated and delivered mild and moderate rectal distention was recorded from 14 female IBS patients and 12 healthy controls.

Author(s): 
Berman, Steven M.
Naliboff, Bruce D.
Suyenobu, Brandall
Labus, Jennifer S.
Stains, Jean
Ohning, Gordon
Kilpatrick, Lisa
Bueller, Joshua A.
Ruby, Kim
Jarcho, Johanna
Mayer, Emeran A.
Publication Title: 
Pain

Preclinical drug development for visceral pain has largely relied on quantifying pseudoaffective responses to colorectal distension (CRD) in restrained rodents. However, the predictive value of changes in simple reflex responses in rodents for the complex human pain experience is not known. Male rats were implanted with venous cannulas and with telemetry transmitters for abdominal electromyographic (EMG) recordings. [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine was injected during noxious CRD (60 mmHg) in the awake, nonrestrained animal.

Author(s): 
Wang, Zhuo
Bradesi, Sylvie
Maarek, Jean-Michel I.
Lee, Kevin
Winchester, Wendy J.
Mayer, Emeran A.
Holschneider, Daniel P.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Pharmacology

Irritable bowel syndrome remains an incompletely understood, common syndrome with significant unmet medical needs. In IBS patients, abdominal pain is a primary factor related to quality of life impairment, symptom severity and health care utilization, and chronic visceral hyperalgesia has been identified as an important aspect of IBS pathophysiology.

Author(s): 
Bradesi, Sylvie
Herman, Jeremy
Mayer, Emeran A.
Publication Title: 
Gastroenterology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic psychological stress is associated with visceral hyperalgesia and increased expression of spinal NK1 receptors (NK1Rs). We aimed to identify the role of spinal microglia in this process. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to water avoidance (WA) or sham stress 1 hour each day for 10 days and given daily injections of minocycline, the p38 inhibitor SB203580, or saline.

Author(s): 
Bradesi, Sylvie
Svensson, Camilla I.
Steinauer, Joanne
Pothoulakis, Charalabos
Yaksh, Tony L.
Mayer, Emeran A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Urology

PURPOSE: Hypersensitivity to visceral stimuli in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome may result from enhanced responsiveness of affective circuits (including the amygdala complex) and associated central pain amplification. Potentiation of the eyeblink startle reflex under threat is mediated by output from the amygdala complex and, therefore, represents a noninvasive marker to study group differences in responsiveness in this brain circuit.

Author(s): 
Twiss, Christian
Kilpatrick, Lisa
Craske, Michelle
Buffington, C. A. Tony
Ornitz, Edward
Rodríguez, Larissa V.
Mayer, Emeran A.
Naliboff, Bruce D.
Publication Title: 
Pain

Studies in healthy human subjects and patients with irritable bowel syndrome suggest sex differences in cerebral nociceptive processing. Here we examine sex differences in functional brain activation in the rat during colorectal distention (CRD), a preclinical model of acute visceral pain. [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine was injected intravenously in awake, non-restrained female rats during 60- or 0-mmHg CRD while electromyographic abdominal activity (EMG) and pain behavior were recorded.

Author(s): 
Wang, Zhuo
Guo, Yumei
Bradesi, Sylvie
Labus, Jennifer S.
Maarek, Jean-Michel I.
Lee, Kevin
Winchester, Wendy J.
Mayer, Emeran A.
Holschneider, Daniel P.

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