Vitamin B 12 Deficiency

Publication Title: 
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism

BACKGROUND: A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. OBJECTIVE: The nutritional status of various B-vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), folic acid) and the concentration of homocysteine in blood plasma of omnivores (n = 40), vegetarians (n = 36) and vegans (n = 42) in Austria was evaluated.

Author(s): 
Majchrzak, D.
Singer, I.
M‰nner, M.
Rust, P.
Genser, D.
Wagner, K.-H.
Elmadfa, I.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations.

Author(s): 
Elmadfa, Ibrahim
Singer, Ingrid
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vegans, and to a lesser extent vegetarians, have low average circulating concentrations of vitamin B12; however, the relation between factors such as age or time on these diets and vitamin B12 concentrations is not clear. The objectives of this study were to investigate differences in serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations between omnivores, vegetarians and vegans and to ascertain whether vitamin B12 concentrations differed by age and time on the diet.

Author(s): 
Gilsing, A. M. J.
Crowe, F. L.
Lloyd-Wright, Z.
Sanders, T. a. B.
Appleby, P. N.
Allen, N. E.
Key, T. J.
Publication Title: 
The Indian Journal of Medical Research

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: There is no published literature on the extent of vitamin B₁₂ deficiency in elderly Indians as determined by plasma vitamin B₁₂ levels and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. Vitamin B₁₂ deficiency is expected to be higher in elderly Indians due to vegetarianism, varied socio-economic strata and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. We therefore, studied the dietary habits of south Indian urban elderly population and measured vitamin B₁₂, MMA red cell folate and homocysteine (Hcy) levels.

Author(s): 
Shobha, Vineeta
Tarey, Subhash D.
Singh, Ramya G.
Shetty, Priya
Unni, Uma S.
Srinivasan, Krishnamachari
Kurpad, Anura V.
Publication Title: 
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 belongs to the biologically active compounds related to cyanocobalamin group. The bioavailability of B12 from different food products varies considerably, for example from the chicken meat it ranges from 61 to 66%, from fish meat is 42%, and from eggs below 9% only. The deficiency of vitamin B12 could easily be overcame by the appropriate diet or food supplements.

Author(s): 
Sicińska, Ewa
Cholewa, Małgorzata
Publication Title: 
BMC pediatrics

BACKGROUND: In infants, vitamin B12 deficiency may be due to an inborn error of absorption and metabolism, or nutritional problems. CASE PRESENTATION: An exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian male infant, who was born after a normal full-term pregnancy to a vegan mother who was apparently daily treated with a multivitamin oral preparation during the second and third trimester, was hospitalised because of poor weight gain, feeding difficulties, severe pallor, muscle hypotonia and somnolence.

Author(s): 
Guez, Sophie
Chiarelli, Gabriella
Menni, Francesca
Salera, Simona
Principi, Nicola
Esposito, Susanna
Publication Title: 
Nutrition Journal

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. METHODS: Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated.

Author(s): 
Naik, Sadanand
Bhide, Vijayshri
Babhulkar, Ashish
Mahalle, Namita
Parab, Sonali
Thakre, Ravi
Kulkarni, Mohan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition

In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia.

Author(s): 
Kocaoglu, Celebi
Akin, Fatih
Caksen, Hüseyin
Böke, Saltuk Buğra
Arslan, Sükrü
Aygün, Serhat
Publication Title: 
Nutrition Journal

BACKGROUND: The effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on vitamin B₁₂ and folate has hither to not been reported in African HIV infected children. This paper describes vitamin B₁₂ and folate status of Ugandan HIV infected children aged 1-5 years and reports the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations. METHODS: Of 847 children who participated in a multiple micronutrient supplementation trial, 214 were assessed for vitamin B₁₂ and folate concentrations pre and post supplementation.

Author(s): 
Ndeezi, Grace
Tumwine, James K.
Ndugwa, Christopher M.
Bolann, Bjørn J.
Tylleskär, Thorkild
Publication Title: 
Nutrition Journal

BACKGROUND: The effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on vitamin B₁₂ and folate has hither to not been reported in African HIV infected children. This paper describes vitamin B₁₂ and folate status of Ugandan HIV infected children aged 1-5 years and reports the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations. METHODS: Of 847 children who participated in a multiple micronutrient supplementation trial, 214 were assessed for vitamin B₁₂ and folate concentrations pre and post supplementation.

Author(s): 
Ndeezi, Grace
Tumwine, James K.
Ndugwa, Christopher M.
Bolann, Bjørn J.
Tylleskär, Thorkild

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