Vitamin D

Publication Title: 
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age.

Author(s): 
Fujita, T.
Publication Title: 
Postgraduate Medicine

Vascular calcification (VC), commonly encountered in renal failure, diabetes, and aging, is associated with a large increase in the risk for cardiovascular events and mortality. Calcification of the arterial media and of heart valves clearly plays a mediating role in this regard, whereas it is less clear how calcification of plaque influences atherogenesis and risk for plaque rupture. Vascular calcification is an active process in which vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) adopt an osteoblastic phenotype and deposit hydroxyapatite crystals; apoptosis of VSMCs also promotes this deposition.

Author(s): 
McCarty, Mark F.
DiNicolantonio, James J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age.

Author(s): 
Fujita, T.
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Nutrition

Increased longevity and improved medical management of children with chronic illnesses has led to a focus on the short- and long-term consequences of these conditions on bone health. Bone loss is influenced by diet, malabsorption, and disease-related imbalances in bone turnover. It may be exacerbated by common medications, especially corticosteroids.

Author(s): 
Abrams, S. A.
O'Brien, K. O.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have experienced marked improvements in longevity over the last three decades, bone disease has emerged as a new problem. Bone disease in CF has not been previously reviewed in this journal. Therefore, this review will give a brief overview of bone disease in CF and then concentrate on treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: In some series, as many as three fourths of adults with CF have low bone density.

Author(s): 
Aris, Robert
Lester, Gayle
Ontjes, David
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Skeletal remodelling is a continuous process during life and is still active also in extreme senescence. In the elderly, bone resorption often prevails over bone formation, causing bone loss and fragility. Elderly subjects are exposed to the risk of fractures, and loss of self-sufficiency, if considering that the proximal femur is the most frequently involved site. Bone remodelling can maintain circulating calcium within physiological ranges, at the expense of a substantial loss of this ion from the skeleton, particularly during senescence.

Author(s): 
Passeri, Giovanni
Vescovini, Rosanna
Sansoni, Paolo
Galli, Carlo
Franceschi, Claudio
Passeri, Mario
Italian Multicentric Study on Centenarians (IMUSCE)
Publication Title: 
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Despite the global importance of this cancer, until recently little was known about risk factors apart from the well-established factors: age, family history and country of birth. The large worldwide variation in prostate cancer risk and increased risk in migrants moving from low to high risk countries provides strong support for modifiable environmental factors.

Author(s): 
Itsiopoulos, Catherine
Hodge, Allison
Kaimakamis, Mary
Publication Title: 
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne

BACKGROUND: Low levels of 25(OH) vitamin D are associated with various age-related diseases and mortality, but causality has not been determined. We investigated vitamin D levels in the offspring of nonagenarians who had at least one nonagenarian sibling; these offspring have a lower prevalence of age-related diseases and a higher propensity to reach old age compared with their partners.

Author(s): 
Noordam, Raymond
de Craen, Anton J. M.
Pedram, Pardis
Maier, Andrea B.
Mooijaart, Simon P.
van Pelt, Johannes
Feskens, Edith J.
Streppel, Martinette T.
Slagboom, P. Eline
Westendorp, Rudi G. J.
Beekman, Marian
van Heemst, Diana
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Vitamin D has received tremendous amount of attention recently due to the ever-increasing reports of association between vitamin D deficiency and a wide range of conditions, from cancer to fertility to longevity. The fascination of disease association with vitamin D deficiency comes from the relatively easy solution to overcome such a risk factor, that is, either by increase in sun exposure and/or diet supplementation.

Author(s): 
Poon, Audrey H.
Mahboub, Bassam
Hamid, Qutayba
Publication Title: 
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift Für Vitamin- Und Ernährungsforschung. Journal International De Vitaminologie Et De Nutrition

BACKGROUND: The Indian plant root Salacia reticulata, which is rich in alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, is used for metabolic disorders in Ayurvedic medicine. Vitamin D₃ is also used in the treatment of some metabolic diseases. Our goal was to determine its potential effect for humans with obesity. MATERIAL: In a randomized open-label study, we investigated 40 healthy participants aged 30 - 60 years, physically active, with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 - 45. The participants were randomly allocated into two groups. Body weight, BMI, and body composition were measured.

Author(s): 
Ofner, Michael
Tomaschitz, Andreas
Wonisch, Manfred
Litscher, Gerhard

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