Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Accumulating epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with hypertension. Blacks tend to have lower vitamin D levels than Whites, but it is unclear whether this difference explains the higher blood pressure (BP) observed in Blacks in a population with healthy lifestyle practices. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined cross-sectional data in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a cohort of non-smoking, mostly non-drinking men and women following a range of diets from vegan to non-vegetarian.
OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status has been associated with osteoporosis, falls, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, autoimmune diseases, pain, nursing home placement, and other age-related conditions, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D status in those aged 80 and older. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that vitamin D status would be 1) poorer in a population-based multi-ethnic sample of centenarians as compared with octogenarians and 2) predicted by specific dietary, demographic or environmental factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based analyses.
The authors analyzed data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation Trial (CaD) to learn more about factors affecting adherence to clinical trial study pills (both active and placebo). Most participants (36,282 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years) enrolled in CaD 1 year after joining either a hormone trial or the dietary modification trial of WHI. The WHI researchers measured adherence to study pills by weighing the amount of remaining pills at an annual study visit; adherence was primarily defined as taking > or = 80% of the pills.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, whereas vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status in regard to hip BMD, 4958 community-dwelling women and 5003 men >/=20 yr of age from the U.S. NHANES III population-based survey were studied. Calcium supplement users and individuals with a prior radius or hip fracture were excluded.
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is widely performed to induce weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine changes in vitamin status after 2 bariatric surgical techniques. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 Scandinavian hospitals. The subjects were 60 superobese patients [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 50-60]. The surgical interventions were either laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. All patients received multivitamins, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements.
BACKGROUND: A low dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium hastens bone loss and osteoporosis. Because vitamin D metabolites may also alter the inflammatory response and have antimicrobial effects, we studied whether the use of vitamin D and calcium supplements affects periodontal disease status. METHODS: A cohort of 51 subjects receiving periodontal maintenance therapy was recruited from two dental clinics; 23 were taking vitamin D (>or=400 IU/day) and calcium (>or=1,000 mg/day) supplementation, and 28 were not taking such supplementation.
Population level data on how older individuals living at high latitudes achieve optimal vitamin D status are not fully explored. Our objective was to examine the intake of vitamin D among healthy older individuals with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations > or =75 nmol/L and to describe current sources of dietary vitamin D. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of 404 healthy men and women aged 69 to 83 y randomly selected from the NuAge longitudinal study in Québec, Canada. Dietary intakes were assessed by 6 24-h recalls.
BACKGROUND: Chronic antiepileptic drug use is associated with bone loss. We sought to assess the longitudinal effect of antiepileptic drug on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and bone mineral metabolism markers. METHODS: Patients in the emergency services or those in neurology outpatient department with history of seizure were characterized and included in the study prospectively. Daily dietary intake of calories, calcium, phosphorus and phytates were characterized by dietary recall method.
Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged >or=1 y using NHANES 2003-2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005-2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate usual nutrient intake from dietary sources.
Vitamin D deficiency in children can have adverse health consequences, such as growth failure and rickets. In 2008,the American Academy of Pediatrics increased its recommended daily intake of vitamin D in infants, children, and adolescents to 400 IU. Infants who are breastfed and children and adolescents who consume less than 1 L of vitamin D-fortified milk per day will likely need supplementation to reach 400 IU of vitamin D per day. This recommendation is based on expert opinion and recent clinical trials measuring biomarkers of vitamin D status.