The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable predictors of vitamin D status in healthy individuals, aged 55-74, and living across the USA. Vitamin D status [serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)] was measured along with age and season at blood collection, demographics, anthropometry, physical activity (PA), diet, and other lifestyle factors in 1357 male and 1264 female controls selected from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) cohort. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations with vitamin D status.
BACKGROUND: For children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency, the efficacy of routine vitamin K supplementation to normalize vitamin K status remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study examined and determined predictors of vitamin K status in subjects aged 8-25 y with CF and pancreatic insufficiency taking various vitamin K supplements.
INTRODUCTION: Studies from the early 20th Century suggest that Inuit had a low prevalence of dental caries. However, Inuit children now experience a high prevalence of tooth decay and dental caries. The main objectives of this study were to provide an estimate of the prevalence and correlates of parental-reported oral health among Inuit preschool-aged children in Nunavut. METHODS: Inuit preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years from 16 of Nunavut's 25 communities were randomly selected to participate in the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey conducted in 2007 and 2008.
OBJECTIVE: Dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium may be related to risk of breast cancer, possibly by affecting mammographic density. However, the few studies that have evaluated the association between these nutrients and mammographic density in postmenopausal women have had inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 808 participants of the Mammogram Density Ancillary Study of the Women's Health Initiative. Mammographic percent density was measured using baseline mammograms taken before randomization of participants in the intervention trials.
BACKGROUND: Since the 1997 Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values for vitamin D and calcium were established new data have become available on their relationship, both individually and combined, to a wide range of health outcomes. The Institute of Medicine/Food and Nutrition Board has constituted a DRI committee to undertake a review of the evidence and potential revision of the current DRI values for these nutrients.
Although vitamin D deficiency is common at birth, the consequences to growth and bone mass by weaning are unclear. This study was designed to determine whether maternal dietary vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has a negative impact on the bone mass of full-term neonates and if postnatal supplementation could restore bone mass. Forty guinea pigs were randomized to receive a control (C) or deficient (D) diet (0.03 microg vs. 0.00 microg cholecalciferol/g) during pregnancy.
BACKGROUND: Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20-85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. METHODS: Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood.
The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70-80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia.
BACKGROUND: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of calcium plus vitamin D (CaD) supplements found a 17% excess in urinary tract stone incidence in the supplemented group. This study evaluated whether this risk is modified by participant characteristics. OBJECTIVE: We examined the correlates of urinary tract stone occurrence in the CaD arm of the WHI trial.
BACKGROUND: The 2011 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for vitamin D use 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations to define vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L), the Estimated Average Requirement (40 nmol/L), and the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA; 50 nmol/L). The Canadian population has not yet been assessed according to these recommendations. OBJECTIVE: We determined the prevalence of meeting DRI recommendations and the role of vitamin D supplement use among Canadians aged 6-79 y.