International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
The medical effects of modest weight reduction (approximately 10% or less) in patients with obesity-associated medical complications were reviewed. The National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database and the Derwent RINGDOC database were searched to identify English language studies that examined the effects of weight loss in obese patients with serious medical complications commonly associated with obesity (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM or type II), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease).
Frontiers in Bioscience: A Journal and Virtual Library
The incidence of intestinal nutrient malabsorption increases with age. Therefore, an important question is whether there are age-related changes in intestinal nutrient absorption which may contribute to a decline in absorptive capacity. Sugar and amino acid transport per mg intestine generally decreases with age. The proximate mechanism underlying this age-related decrease in transport activity is a decrease in number of transporters per mg.
Although weight loss is routinely recommended for obese person, the observational literature is controversial in respect of prolongation of life longevity after body weight loss. The positive long-term outcome has been found only in intentional weight loss in obese people with obesity-related comorbidities. The main task in obesity treatment strategy is "primum non nocere". The authors analysed the short-term effect and acceptability of low calorie diet (5 MJ) on health state of 150 obese people (BMI x = 35.9 kg/m2).
Obesity is increasing in epidemic proportions world-wide. Even mild degrees of obesity have adverse health effects and are associated with diminished longevity. For this reason aggressive dietary intervention is recommended. Patients with body mass indices exceeding 40 have medically significant obesity in which the risk of serious health consequences is substantial, with concomitant significant reductions in life expectancy. For these patients, sustained weight loss rarely occurs with dietary intervention. For the appropriately selected patients, surgery is beneficial.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a difference in risk-factor improvement for coronary heart disease (CHD) between the intra-abdominal fat (IF) and subcutaneous fat (SF) obesity phenotypes after weight loss. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Subjects included 55 mildly obese women (body mass index, 25 to 36 kg/m(2); age range, 34 to 63 years) who had at least two of three CHD risk factors [systolic blood pressure (SBP), >140 mm Hg; total cholesterol (TC), >220 mg/dL; fasting plasma glucose, >110 mg/dL).
The potential impact of dietary manipulation on the maintenance of physical and cognitive function between middle and old age has profound consequences for optimization of health, independence and well-being for the latter years. This review article considers four key areas: the role of diet and longevity; potential dietary measures to prevent sarcopenia; diet and cognitive function; and dietary interventions with regard to primary or secondary prevention of age-related chronic disorders.
Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Short-term studies indicate that intentional weight loss (IWL) among obese persons significantly improves health variables that are often precursors or markers of chronic diseases (e.g. heart diseases, type-2 diabetes). Hence, it is logical to assume that IWL among obese persons would lead to increased longevity.
Calorie restriction increases longevity in rodents, delays the onset of certain diseases and has positive effects on ageing. Studies are ongoing in non-human primates. Eight persons following such a diet for 2 years reacted as anticipated (loss of body weight and fat, decrease in glycaemia and body temperature, etc.). Calorie restriction perhaps teaches us more on the means of resisting malnutrition than on ageing in normal dietary conditions. Calorie restriction is a tool for research, but it should not be recommended by practitioners, notably in elderly patients.