Western World

Publication Title: 
Contributions to Nephrology

Components of the diet related to changes in eating habits that characterize the modern Western world are important factors in the increasingly high prevalence of chronic disease, including obesity, diabetes, hypertension and as a consequence, chronic kidney disease. The healthy diets recommended for the general population to promote longevity (such as the Mediterranean diet), are defined based on epidemiological and intervention studies and are usually characterized by a relatively higher amount of protein than the usual Western diet.

Author(s): 
Pecoits-Filho, Roberto
Publication Title: 
Journal of Advanced Nursing

Despite enormous progress in the understanding and treatment of disease during the 20th century, the amount of care individuals receive from health professionals is arguably less than in previous decades. Being in the presence of caring people who practised human caring has always been the bedrock of services to individuals who were ill. With the rise of scientific positivism in the mid-19th century, traditional ways of caring for sick people, not susceptible to scientific investigation and intervention, were either abandoned or discouraged.

Author(s): 
Peacock, J. W.
Nolan, P. W.
Publication Title: 
The American journal of bioethics: AJOB

This essay explores a proper Confucian vision on genetic enhancement. It argues that while Confucians can accept a formal starting point that Michael Sandel proposes in his ethics of giftedness, namely, that children should be taken as gifts, Confucians cannot adopt his generalist strategy. The essay provides a Confucian full ethics of giftedness by addressing a series of relevant questions, such as what kind of gifts children are, where the gifts are from, in which way they are given, and for what purpose they are given.

Author(s): 
Fan, Ruiping
Publication Title: 
Developing World Bioethics

In a prior issue of Developing World Bioethics, Cheryl Macpherson and Ruth Macklin critically engaged with an article of mine, where I articulated a moral theory grounded on indigenous values salient in the sub-Saharan region, and then applied it to four major issues in bioethics, comparing and contrasting its implications with those of the dominant Western moral theories, utilitarianism and Kantianism.

Author(s): 
Metz, Thaddeus
Publication Title: 
The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: This is the second of two papers that aim to identify some cultural themes and institutional processes that shaped the development of schizophrenia as a disease concept. METHOD: A number of domains within 19th century European history are explored for evidence of the concept of the divided or disintegrated person. These include German academic psychiatry, Mesmerism and hypnosis, neurology and neurophysiology, psychoanalysis and German Romantic literature, and its descendants within a wider European literature.

Author(s): 
Barrett, R. J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nursing Education

Educators are increasingly being called on to teach nursing students the fundamentals of spiritual care. The purpose of this study was to investigate and analyze what was being taught to nursing students about spirituality and spiritual care through nursing fundamentals textbooks. Findings of this study suggest that although this body of literature provides comprehensive content about spirituality and spiritual care, there are some underlying conceptual problems.

Author(s): 
Pesut, Barbara
Publication Title: 
The American Psychologist

Meditation is now one of the most enduring, widespread, and researched of all psychotherapeutic methods. However, to date the meeting of the meditative disciplines and Western psychology has been marred by significant misunderstandings and by an assimilative integration in which much of the richness and uniqueness of meditation and its psychologies and philosophies have been overlooked.

Author(s): 
Walsh, Roger
Shapiro, Shauna L.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the Indian Institute of History of Medicine (Hyderabad)

The article describes a systematic bias against India in Western literature on history of medicine. While many authors have ignored the contributions of India in development of medicine altogether, the others have relegated India's role much behind other civilizations. Unnecessary and deliberate controversies on dating and origin of Ayurveda, primacy of Greek vs. Hindu Medicine and the origin of the practice of variolation have been elaborated by Western authors. Some medical historians, like Siegrist, have tried to give India its due place in the history of medicine.

Author(s): 
Singh, A.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation

In India, by the second century B.C., Ayurvedic medicine had already taken the momentous step of becoming rational therapeutics. Physicians created a methodology based on the supreme importance of direct observation of natural phenomena and the technique of rational processing of empirical data. However, over the long history of the country, Ayurvedic medicine underwent severe erosion of its knowledge and practice because of profound political, cultural, social, and economic changes. Nevertheless, it was used by the poor because access to Western medicine was denied by the ruling classes.

Author(s): 
Banerji, Debabar
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Following its climax in the 8th century under the Abbasids of Baghdad, the Arab world entered a prolonged period of division and decadence. "Western" medicine was introduced in the 19th century with the support of the general population. The historical participation of Arabs in the elaboration of that "Western" biomedical model and its apparently consensual re-introduction into the Arab world diffused any sense of cognitive alienation vis-à-vis practices promoted initially by non-Arab doctors.

Author(s): 
Adib, Salim M.

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