Modern historical research of women and nursing has largely neglected the role of religious groups, particularly in the American frontier. The image of women at the end of the 19th century was one of submission to male authority and confinement to the domestic sphere. However, in the pluralistic West, a variety of organized religious women built and administered hospitals, initiated professional nursing, and provided effective health care services.
This article documents the historical factors that led to shifts in mission work toward a greater emphasis on community health for the poor and most vulnerable of society in sub-Saharan Africa after 1945. Using the example of the Medical Mission Sisters from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and their work in Ghana, we challenge the conventional narrative of medical missions as agents of imperialism.
This article situates women's roles in community health care during violence in Uganda in the 1970s. It examines the lived reality of Catholic missionary sister nurses, midwives, and physicians on the ground where sisters administered health care to local communities. The goal is to examine how religious women worked with local individuals and families in community health during periods of violence and war. Catholic sisters claimed to be apolitical, yet their mission work widened to include political issues.
Access to health care has been a factor for patients living in isolated mountain regions. The Frontier Nursing service was a pioneer in reaching those patients living in the most remote regions of Appalachia. Geography, demographics, and culture present obstacles for rural residents and health care providers. This article identifies and describes the roles nurses and nurse practitioners played in caring for Appalachian families through a roving Health Wagon in the 1980s and 1990s in Southwest Virginia.
Shinrigaku Kenkyu: The Japanese Journal of Psychology
The purpose of this study was to investigate recent changes in marital norm and reality in middle-aged couples, and how marital reality, as perceived by oneself, was associated with their demographic variables, as well as their marital satisfaction. A questionnaire was administered, and 277 pairs of middle-aged, nuclear-family couples participated. Main findings were as follows. First, factor analysis of marital reality variables extracted three factors: love each other, respect for the husband's life style, and respect for wife's life style.
This study examined the effect of socioeconomic-cultural homogamy on the marital and sexual satisfaction of Hong Kong Chinese couples. Using a representative, territory-wide sample of 1,083 first-time married heterosexual couples, this study found that wives were generally less satisfied than their husbands with their marital and sexual relationships.
This essay briefly examines some of the cross-cultural challenges that faced nurses in the Philippines, India, and South Africa in the context of 19th and 20th century imperialism. During this time, nurses from colonizing countries served as agents of empire by helping to establish and reinforce American and European control in colonized societies. In doing so, they sought to instill the racial and gender hierarchies of their home countries in the colonial territories.
BACKGROUND: By improving two social determinants of health (poverty and unemployment) in low- and middle-income families on or at risk of welfare, in-work tax credit for families (IWTC) interventions could impact health status and outcomes in adults. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of IWTCs on health outcomes in working-age adults (18 to 64 years).
The authors investigate the relationship between family policy and women's attachment to the labor market, focusing specifically on policy feedback on women's subjective work commitment. They utilize a quasi-experimental design to identify normative policy effects from changes in mothers' work commitment in conjunction with two policy changes that significantly extended the length of statutory parental leave entitlements in Germany.
This paper takes the perspective that competitive strivings in self and others have been an area of difficulty for women and that gender socialization has played a significant role. The author discusses elements of competition that seem toxic for women and proposes descriptors of healthy competition. It is proposed that hypnosis provides a suitable method for neutralizing negative elements and promoting adaptive responses in competitive situations. Five applications of hypnotic methods are illustrated through two case examples.