Xanthones

Publication Title: 
Phytochemical analysis: PCA

Triphala is an anti-oxidant-rich herbal formulation containing fruits of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and T. belerica in equal proportions. The preparation is frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diseases such as anaemia, jaundice, constipation, asthma, fever and chronic ulcers. Anti-mutagenic effects of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from Triphala have been reported, thus indicating that the phenols present in the formulation might be responsible for its therapeutic efficacy.

Author(s): 
Singh, D. P.
Govindarajan, R.
Rawat, A. K. S.
Publication Title: 
FEBS letters

We recently demonstrated that 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyxanthone (X5) inhibits the in vitro growth of both chloroquine-sensitive and multidrug-resistant strains of P. falciparum. To study the molecular basis of its antimalarial action, we tested X5 and selected hydroxyxanthone analogs as inhibitors of in vitro heme polymerization in a low ionic strength phosphate solution at mildly acidic pH. We found that addition of 1 Eq. of X5 resulted in complete inhibition of polymerization in this system whereas addition of up to 40 Eqs.

Author(s): 
Ignatushchenko, M. V.
Winter, R. W.
Bächinger, H. P.
Hinrichs, D. J.
Riscoe, M. K.
Publication Title: 
BMC medicine

BACKGROUND: The mangosteen fruit has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Recently, the compound α-mangostin, which is isolated from the pericarp of the fruit, was shown to induce cell death in various types of cancer cells in in vitro studies. This led us to investigate the antitumor growth and antimetastatic activities of α-mangostin in an immunocompetent xenograft model of mouse metastatic mammary cancer having a p53 mutation that induces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancers.

Author(s): 
Shibata, Masa-Aki
Iinuma, Munekazu
Morimoto, Junji
Kurose, Hitomi
Akamatsu, Kanako
Okuno, Yasushi
Akao, Yukihiro
Otsuki, Yoshinori
Publication Title: 
Rapid communications in mass spectrometry: RCM

Swertia chirata is a bitter plant, used in the Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) for various human ailments. The bioactive constituents include the xanthone and secoiridoid glycosides consisting of mangiferin, amarogentin, amaroswerin, sweroside and swertiamarin. Methanolic extracts of S. chirata possess constituents with antidiabetic activities, which was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). Preliminary HPLC analyses were performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using gradient elution.

Author(s): 
Suryawanshi, Satyendra
Mehrotra, Nitin
Asthana, R. K.
Gupta, Ram C.
Publication Title: 
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism

AIMS: We investigated the effect of the water extract of Salacia oblonga (SOE), an ayurvedic antidiabetic and antiobesity medicine, on obesity and diabetes-associated cardiac hypertrophy and discuss the role of modulation of cardiac angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)) expression in the effect. METHODS: SOE (100 mg/kg) was given orally to male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats for 7 weeks. At the end-point of the treatment, the hearts and left ventricles were weighed, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas were measured, and cardiac gene profiles were analysed.

Author(s): 
Huang, T. H.
He, L.
Qin, Q.
Yang, Q.
Peng, G.
Harada, M.
Qi, Y.
Yamahara, J.
Roufogalis, B. D.
Li, Y.
Publication Title: 
Phytochemical analysis: PCA

Triphala is an anti-oxidant-rich herbal formulation containing fruits of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and T. belerica in equal proportions. The preparation is frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diseases such as anaemia, jaundice, constipation, asthma, fever and chronic ulcers. Anti-mutagenic effects of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from Triphala have been reported, thus indicating that the phenols present in the formulation might be responsible for its therapeutic efficacy.

Author(s): 
Singh, D. P.
Govindarajan, R.
Rawat, A. K. S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kothala himbutu (Salacia reticulata) is a medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic system of Indian and Sri Lankan traditional medicine to treat diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to clarify the mechanism(s) by which aqueous extracts of Kothala himbutu (KTE) stems decreases fasting blood glucose levels.

Author(s): 
Im, Ryanghyok
Mano, Hiroshi
Matsuura, Tomokazu
Nakatani, Sachie
Shimizu, Jun
Wada, Masahiro
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

The plant Swertia chirata (Gentianaceae) is known for its multifarious medicinal value in the Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda). Its methanol extracts having antidiabetic activity contains mangiferin, amarogentin, amaroswerin, sweroside and swertiamarin as active constituents. The pharmacokinetics of mangiferin and amarogentin have been carried out after intravenous administration of pure standards and extract from S. chirata (CT) in rabbits to assess systemic interaction.

Author(s): 
Suryawanshi, Satyendra
Asthana, R. K.
Gupta, R. C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHOPARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salacia reticulata, a herbal medicine which has been used for the treatment of early diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine, is reported to have an anti-obesity effect and to be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and other metabolic diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Salacia reticulata with special attention to the adipocytes as the tissue primarily involved in the pathology of metabolic diseases.

Author(s): 
Shimada, Tsutomu
Nagai, Eiichi
Harasawa, Yukiko
Watanabe, Michiru
Negishi, Kenichi
Akase, Tomoko
Sai, Yoshimichi
Miyamoto, Ken-ichi
Aburada, Masaki
Publication Title: 
BMC medicine

BACKGROUND: The mangosteen fruit has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Recently, the compound α-mangostin, which is isolated from the pericarp of the fruit, was shown to induce cell death in various types of cancer cells in in vitro studies. This led us to investigate the antitumor growth and antimetastatic activities of α-mangostin in an immunocompetent xenograft model of mouse metastatic mammary cancer having a p53 mutation that induces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancers.

Author(s): 
Shibata, Masa-Aki
Iinuma, Munekazu
Morimoto, Junji
Kurose, Hitomi
Akamatsu, Kanako
Okuno, Yasushi
Akao, Yukihiro
Otsuki, Yoshinori

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