Xenobiotics

Publication Title: 
Biochemical Pharmacology

Studying the biological functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) other than its function in xenobiotic drug metabolism may answer the questions as to why AhR orthologues have long been conserved phylogenically widely in the animal kingdom, and why homologues have diverged from nonvertebrate species such as nematodes and drosophila to all the vertebrate species.

Author(s): 
Hirabayashi, Yoko
Inoue, Tohru
Publication Title: 
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research

Vitamin E refers to a family of several compounds that possess a similar chemical structure comprising a chromanol ring with a 16-carbon side chain. The degree of saturation of the side chain, and positions and nature of methyl groups designate the compounds as tocopherols or tocotrienols. Vitamin E compounds have antioxidant properties due to a hydroxyl group on the chromanol ring. Recently, it has been suggested that vitamin E may also regulate signal transduction and gene expression.

Author(s): 
Banks, Ruth
Speakman, John R.
Selman, Colin
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Xenobiotic metabolism has been proposed to play a role in modulating the rate of aging. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) are expressed at higher levels in calorically restricted mice (CR) and in GH/IGF-I-deficient, long-lived mutant mice. In this study, we show that many phase I XME genes are similarly upregulated in additional long-lived mouse models, including "crowded litter" (CL) mice, whose lifespan has been increased by food restriction limited to the first 3 wk of life, and in mice treated with rapamycin.

Author(s): 
Steinbaugh, Michael J.
Sun, Liou Y.
Bartke, Andrzej
Miller, Richard A.
Publication Title: 
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)

Gossypol, the polyphenolic constituent isolated from cottonseeds, has been used as a male antifertility drug for a long time, and has been demonstrated to exhibit excellent anti-tumor activity towards multiple cancer types. The toxic effects of gossypol limit its clinical utilization, and enzyme inhibition is an important facet of this. In the present study, in vitro human liver microsomal incubation system supplemented with UDPGA was used to investigate the inhibition of gossypol towards UGT1A1, 1A9 and 2B7-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous substances.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Yong-sheng
Yuan, Jun
Fang, Zhong-Ze
Tu, Yan-yang
Hu, Cui-Min
Li, Gan
Wang, Liang
Deng, Jian-Ping
Yao, Jia-Jiu
Li, Hai-Rong
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

An extract of the plant Coleus forskohlii has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine to treat various diseases such as hypothyroidism, heart disease, and respiratory disorders. Additionally, complex herbal mixtures containing this extract are gaining popularity in United States for their putative "fat-burning" properties. The active ingredient in C. forskohlii extract is the diterpene compound forskolin.

Author(s): 
Ding, Xunshan
Staudinger, Jeff L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

An extract of the plant Coleus forskohlii has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine to treat various diseases such as hypothyroidism, heart disease, and respiratory disorders. Additionally, complex herbal mixtures containing this extract are gaining popularity in United States for their putative "fat-burning" properties. The active ingredient in C. forskohlii extract is the diterpene compound forskolin.

Author(s): 
Ding, Xunshan
Staudinger, Jeff L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

While it has long been known that inflammation and infection reduce expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and that exposure to xenobiotic chemicals can impair immune function, the molecular mechanisms underlying both of these phenomena have remained largely unknown. Here we show that activation of the nuclear steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) by commonly used drugs in humans inhibits the activity of NF-kappaB, a key regulator of inflammation and the immune response.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Changcheng
Tabb, Michelle M.
Nelson, Edward L.
Grün, Felix
Verma, Suman
Sadatrafiei, Asal
Lin, Min
Mallick, Shyamali
Forman, Barry M.
Thummel, Kenneth E.
Blumberg, Bruce
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Many similarities exist between research on combinatorial chemistry and natural products and research on dietary supplements and botanicals at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Botanical Research Centers. The technologies used at the centers are similar to those used by other NIH-sponsored investigators. All centers rigorously examine the authenticity of botanical dietary supplements and determine the composition and concentrations of the phytochemicals therein, most often by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Author(s): 
Barnes, Stephen
Birt, Diane F.
Cassileth, Barrie R.
Cefalu, William T.
Chilton, Floyd H.
Farnsworth, Norman R.
Raskin, Ilya
van Breemen, Richard B.
Weaver, Connie M.
Publication Title: 
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)

Immunotoxicity testing is important in determining the toxic effects of chemical substances, medicinal products, airborne pollutants, cosmetics, medical devices, and food additives. The immune system of the host is a direct target of these toxicants, and the adverse effects include serious health complications such as susceptibility to infections, cancer, allergic reactions, and autoimmune diseases. One way to investigate the harmful effects of different chemicals is to study apoptosis in immune cell populations.

Author(s): 
Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu
Vakharia, Dilip
Nagarkatti, Prakash S.
Publication Title: 
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Liver is the major body reservoir for enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Recently, it has been shown that hepatocytes release exosome-like vesicles to the extracellular medium, and the proteomic characterization of these hepatocyte-secreted exosomes has revealed the presence of several of these enzymes on them.

Author(s): 
Conde-Vancells, Javier
Gonzalez, Esperanza
Lu, Shelly C.
Mato, José M.
Falcon-Perez, Juan M.

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