Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

Steroid hormones exhibit diverse biological activities. Despite intensive studies on steroid function at the genomic level, their nongenomic actions remain an enigma. In this study, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in androgen-stimulated prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation. In androgen-treated PCa cells, increased cell growth and ROS production correlated with elevated p66Shc protein, an authentic oxidase. This growth stimulation was blocked by antioxidants.

Author(s): 
Veeramani, Suresh
Chou, Yu-Wei
Lin, Frank C.
Muniyan, Sakthivel
Lin, Fen-Fen
Kumar, Satyendra
Xie, Yan
Lele, Subodh M.
Tu, Yaping
Lin, Ming-Fong
Publication Title: 
Blood

Although the overproduction of immunoglobulins by short-lived plasma cells accompanying an immune response links with their apoptosis, how long-lived plasma cells adapt to ensure their longevity in this context is obscure. Here, we show that apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) contributes to apoptosis of plasma cells because ASK1 activity was induced during differentiation of short-lived plasma cells, and, when produced by ASK1-deficient mice, these cells survived better than those of control mice.

Author(s): 
Lin, Fan-Ru
Huang, Shang-Yi
Hung, Kuo-Hsuan
Su, Shin-Tang
Chung, Cheng-Han
Matsuzawa, Atsushi
Hsiao, Michael
Ichijo, Hidenori
Lin, Kuo-I.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

In human cancers, telomeres are commonly maintained by elevated levels of the ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase, which contains an intrinsic templating RNA moiety (human telomerase RNA; hTER) and the core protein (human telomerase reverse transcriptase). We developed a lentiviral system for efficient overexpression of mutant-template human telomerase RNA (MT-hTer) to add mutant DNA to telomeres in cancer cells.

Author(s): 
Li, Shang
Rosenberg, Jonathan E.
Donjacour, Annemarie A.
Botchkina, Inna L.
Hom, Yun Kit
Cunha, Gerald R.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain proteins have emerged as promising therapeutic targets in glioblastoma and many other cancers. Small molecule inhibitors of BET bromodomain proteins reduce expression of several oncogenes required for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) progression. However, the mechanism through which BET protein inhibition reduces GBM growth is not completely understood.

Author(s): 
Pastori, Chiara
Kapranov, Philipp
Penas, Clara
Peschansky, Veronica
Volmar, Claude-Henry
Sarkaria, Jann N.
Bregy, Amade
Komotar, Ricardo
St Laurent, Georges
Ayad, Nagi G.
Wahlestedt, Claes
Publication Title: 
Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

PURPOSE: ART and its derivatives, clinically used antimalarial agents, have recently shown antitumor activities. However, the mechanisms underlying these activities remain unclear. This study was designed to determine their antitumor efficacy and underlying mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The in vitro cytotoxicities of ART, DHA, artemether, and artesunate were compared in human hepatoma cells, HepG2 (p53 wild-type), Huh-7 and BEL-7404 (p53 mutant), and Hep3B (p53 null), and a normal human liver cell line, 7702.

Author(s): 
Hou, Junmei
Wang, Disong
Zhang, Ruiwen
Wang, Hui
Publication Title: 
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

Pancreatic cancer is highly resistant to the currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Less than 5% of patients diagnosed with this disease could survive beyond 5 years. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of novel, efficacious drugs that can treat pancreatic cancer. Herein we report the identification of artesunate (ART), a derivative of artemisinin, as a potent and selective antitumor agent against human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

Author(s): 
Du, Ji-Hui
Zhang, Hou-De
Ma, Zhen-Jian
Ji, Kun-Mei
Publication Title: 
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B

This paper aims to investigate the effects of artesunate (ART) on growth and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma HOS cell line in vitro and in vivo and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The induction of apoptosis was detected by light and transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to investigate the related mechanisms. Nude mice were further employed to investigate the antitumour activity of ART in vivo.

Author(s): 
Xu, Qiang
Li, Zhao-Xu
Peng, Hui-Qin
Sun, Zheng-Wang
Cheng, Rui-Lin
Ye, Zhao-Ming
Li, Wei-Xu
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in industrialized countries. Systemic treatment of breast cancer is effective at the beginning of therapy. However, after a variable period of time, progression occurs due to therapy resistance. Artesunate, clinically used as anti-malarial agent, has recently revealed remarkable anti-tumor activity offering a role as novel candidate for cancer chemotherapy. We analyzed the anti-tumor effects of artesunate in metastasizing breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

Author(s): 
Bachmeier, Beatrice
Fichtner, Iduna
Killian, Peter H.
Kronski, Emanuel
Pfeffer, Ulrich
Efferth, Thomas
Publication Title: 
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Clinical and laboratory studies have suggested that multi-targeting approaches against neoplastic cells could help to increase patient survival and might reduce the emergence of cells that are resistant to single-target inhibitors. Artesunate (ART) is one of the most potent and rapidly acting antimalarial agents known, and it also exerts a profound cytotoxic activity toward cancer cells and reverses multi-drug resistance.

Author(s): 
Ma, Hu
Yao, Quan
Zhang, An-Mei
Lin, Sheng
Wang, Xin-Xin
Wu, Lei
Sun, Jian-Guo
Chen, Zheng-Tang
Publication Title: 
Radiation Oncology (London, England)

OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women worldwide and radiotherapy remains its predominant therapeutic treatment. Artesunate (ART), a derivative of artemisinin, has shown radiosensitization effect in previous studies. However, such effects of ART have not yet been revealed for cervical cancer cells. METHODS: The effect of ART on radiosensitivity of human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa was assessed using the clonogenic assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis alterations were analyzed by flow cytometry.

Author(s): 
Luo, Judong
Zhu, Wei
Tang, Yiting
Cao, Han
Zhou, Yuanyuan
Ji, Rong
Zhou, Xifa
Lu, Zhongkai
Yang, Hongying
Zhang, Shuyu
Cao, Jianping

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