The SLC16 gene family has fourteen members. Four (SLC16A1, SLC16A3, SLC16A7, and SLC16A8) encode monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1, MCT4, MCT2, and MCT3, respectively) catalysing the proton-linked transport of monocarboxylates such as l-lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies across the plasma membrane. SLC16A2 encodes a high affinity thyroid hormone transporter (MCT8) and SLC16A10 an aromatic amino acid transporter (TAT1). The substrates and roles of the remaining eight members are unknown.
Ethyl 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-4-imidazolecarboxylate (TG41) enhanced the binding both of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and of flunitrazepam to rat cerebral cortical membranes. Electrophysiological recordings from Xenopus oocytes expressing various recombinant GABA(A) receptor subtypes revealed that TG41 enhanced the function of all receptor subunit combinations tested. The potency of TG41 at receptors containing alpha1, beta2, and gamma2L subunits was greater than that of alphaxalone, etomidate, propofol, or pentobarbital.
BACKGROUND: Volatile aromatic compounds such as benzene are general anesthetics that cause amnesia, hypnosis, and immobility in response to noxious stimuli when inhaled. Although these compounds are not used clinically, they are frequently found in commercial items such as solvents and household cleaning products and are abused as inhalant drugs. Volatile aromatic anesthetics are useful pharmacological tools for probing the relationship between chemical structure and drug activity at putative general anesthetic targets.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) are potential targets of ethanol. However, there are multiple subtypes of this receptor, and, thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific ethanol behavioral actions. Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABA(A)-R subunit genes, including ?2 (Gabra2), was associated with human alcoholism (Am J Hum Genet 74:705-714, 2004; Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:95-104, 2008; J Psychiatr Res 42:184-191, 2008). The goal of our study was to determine the role of receptors containing this subunit in alcohol action.
BACKGROUND: Carboetomidate is an etomidate derivative that produces hypnosis without inhibiting adrenal corticosteroid synthesis. Similar to etomidate, carboetomidate modulates ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, but its effects on other ion channel targets of general anesthetics are unknown. METHODS: We compared etomidate and carboetomidate effects on human N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors or neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nnAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using 2-microelectrode voltage clamp electrophysiology.
BACKGROUND: R-etomidate possesses unique desirable properties but potently suppresses adrenocortical function. Consequently, efforts are being made to define structure-activity relationships with the goal of designing analogues with reduced adrenocortical toxicity. The authors explored the pharmacological impact of modifying etomidate's chiral center using R-etomidate, S-etomidate, and two achiral etomidate analogues (cyclopropyl etomidate and dihydrogen etomidate).
To investigate the kinetics of both the potentiation and desensitization of the response of ionotropic GABA receptors (GABA(A) receptors) in the presence of various compounds, we expressed receptors composed of alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits by injecting cells with the cRNAs synthesized from cloned bovine GABA(A) receptor cDNAs and measured the electrical responses of the cells electrophysiologically with or without the compounds.
Hypoxic/ischemic disruption of ionic homeostasis is a critical trigger of neuronal injury/death in the brain. There is, however, no promising strategy against such pathophysiologic change to protect the brain from hypoxic/ischemic injury. Here, we present a novel finding that activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR) reduced anoxic Na+ influx in the mouse cortex, which was completely blocked by DOR antagonism with naltrindole.
Cardiac slow delayed rectifier (I(Ks)) channel complex consists of KCNQ1 channel and KCNE1 auxiliary subunits. The extracellular juxtamembranous region of KCNE1 is an unstructured loop that contacts multiple KCNQ1 positions in a gating-state-dependent manner. Congenital arrhythmia-related mutations have been identified in the extracellular S1-S2 linker of KCNQ1. These mutations manifest abnormal phenotypes only when coexpressed with KCNE1, pointing to the importance of proper KCNQ1/KCNE1 interactions here in I(Ks) channel function.
Phospholipase modulators have been shown to affect the topology of lipid bilayers and the formation of tubulo-vesicular structures, but the specific endogenous phospholipases involved have yet to be identified. Here we show that TRPML1 (MLN1), a Ca(2+)-permeable channel, contributes to membrane remodeling through a serine lipase consensus domain, and thus represents a novel type of bifunctional protein.