Zambia

Publication Title: 
Journal of Biosocial Science

This paper proposes a causal model of sexual activity among a randomly selected sample of 305 Junio secondary school girls in Zambia. The results indicate that liberal sexual attitudes influence romantic involvement with boys. Emotional involvement is likely to result in sexual activity. Traditional courtship forms are slowly being replaced by modern patterns of courtship behaviour. Policy and programme implications are discussed.

Author(s): 
Pillai, V. K.
Barton, T.
Benefo, K.
Publication Title: 
Health Promotion International

Male participation in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV has been determined as one of the key factors in sub-Saharan African countries, but its realization is challenging because of male-related and institutional factors. The purpose of this study is two-fold: first, we explored the views of Luba-Kasai men, living in Zambia in the Lusaka Province, on the factors that encourage, inconvenience or inhibit them in accompanying their wives to the antenatal clinic and their ideas to improve their experience.

Author(s): 
Auvinen, Jaana
Kylm‰, Jari
V‰lim‰ki, Maritta
Bweupe, Max
Suominen, Tarja
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

BACKGROUND: Chloroquine (CQ) and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) are the predominantly used antimalarials in Zambia and other parts of East Africa, but increasing resistance of P. falciparum is a major concern. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled. In 43 patients, no prior CQ use could be demonstrated by history and urianalysis (qualitative test, Dill & Glazko) and these patients were given CQ; the other 27 had taken CQ before and received SP.

Author(s): 
Bijl, H. M.
Kager, J.
Koetsier, D. W.
van der Werf, T. S.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The efficacy and safety of intramuscular artemotil (ARTECEF) was compared to intravenous quinine in African children with cerebral malaria. This prospective block randomized open-label study was conducted at two centers in Zambia. Subjects were children aged 0 to 10 years of age with cerebral malaria and a Blantyre Coma Score of 2 or less. Ninety two children were studied; 48 received artemotil and 44 quinine. No significant differences in survival, coma resolution time, neurologic sequelae, parasite clearance time, and fever resolution time were seen between the two regimens.

Author(s): 
Thuma, P. E.
Bhat, G. J.
Mabeza, G. F.
Osborne, C.
Biemba, G.
Shakankale, G. M.
Peeters, P. A.
Oosterhuis, B.
Lugt, C. B.
Gordeuk, V. R.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

In the Maheba Refugee Settlement, in the clinics supported by Medecins Sans Frontieres, all children aged up to 5 years with a confirmed diagnosis of uncomplicated falciparum malaria are treated with the combination of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) and artesunate (AS). We compared the treatment's efficacy and effectiveness. Patients were randomized in order to receive the treatment supervised (efficacy) or unsupervised (effectiveness). Therapeutic response was determined after 28 days of follow up.

Author(s): 
Depoortere, Evelyn
Guthmann, Jean-Paul
Pressé, Jacinthe
Sipilanyambe, Naawa
Nkandu, Esther
Balkan, Suna
de Pécoulas, Philippe Eldin
Legros, Dominique
Publication Title: 
BMC public health

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines.

Author(s): 
Kaona, Frederick A. D.
Tuba, Mary
Publication Title: 
BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate treatment practices for uncomplicated malaria after the policy change from chloroquine to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Outpatient departments of all government and mission facilities in four districts in Zambia. PARTICIPANTS: 944 children with uncomplicated malaria seen by 103 health workers at 94 health facilities.

Author(s): 
Zurovac, Dejan
Ndhlovu, Mickey
Rowe, Alexander K.
Hamer, Davidson H.
Thea, Donald M.
Snow, Robert W.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: In Zambia, unacceptably high resistance to commonly used antimalarial drugs prompted the choice of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as first line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although the safety and efficacy of AL have been extensively documented, no clinical trials had been carried out in Zambia. METHODS: Nine hundred seventy one adult patients with uncomplicated malaria were randomized to either sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)(486) or AL (485) and followed up for 45 days. Outcome of treatment was defined according to the standard WHO classification.

Author(s): 
Mulenga, Modest
VangGeertruyden, Jean-Pierre
Mwananyanda, Lawrence
Chalwe, Victor
Moerman, Filip
Chilengi, Roma
Van Overmeir, Chantal
Dujardin, Jean-Claude
D'Alessandro, Umberto
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Sentinel site surveillance of antimalarials by in-vivo therapeutic efficacy studies in Zambia is one of the key activities ear-marked for monitoring and evaluation. The studies are conducted annually in order to provide timely and reliable information on the status of the recommended regimens for malaria case management. The findings of the therapeutic efficacy of an artemisinin-based combination therapy of pediatric artemether-lumefantrine (Coartesiane) are reported.

Author(s): 
Chanda, Pascalina
Hawela, Moonga
Kango, Mabvuto
Sipilanyambe, Naawa
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected adults with low CD4 cell count have a higher risk of malaria infection and clinical malaria. We assessed the influence that HIV-1 immune suppression has on the efficacy of antimalarial treatment in adults with uncomplicated malaria. METHODS: This clinical trial included 971 Zambian adults with uncomplicated malaria. Patients were tested for HIV-1, and, if positive, a CD4 cell count was assessed. The primary outcome was recurrent parasitemia corrected by molecular genotyping within 45 days after treatment.

Author(s): 
Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre
Mulenga, Modest
Mwananyanda, Lawrence
Chalwe, Victor
Moerman, Filip
Chilengi, Roma
Kasongo, Webster
Van Overmeir, Chantal
Dujardin, Jean-Claude
Colebunders, Robert
Kestens, Luc
D'Alessandro, Umberto

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