Publication Title: 
The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

One hundred and eight patients with severe falciparum malaria underwent a placebo controlled trial with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), as an adjunctive therapy along with standard intravenous artesunate therapy. Three NAC dosage regimens were used: an intravenous loading dose of 140 mg/kg followed by 70 mg/kg every four hours intravenously for up to 18 doses (Group 1); a single intravenous loading dose followed by oral NAC in the same amount as for Group 1 (Group 2); a regimen identical to Group 1 except that oral NAC was administered after the first 24 hours (Group 3).

Treeprasertsuk, Sombat
Krudsood, Srivicha
Tosukhowong, Thanawat
Maek-A-Nantawat, Wirach
Vannaphan, Suparp
Saengnetswang, Tosaporn
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
Kuhn, Walter F.
Brittenham, Gary
Carroll, James
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: A major obstacle for successful cancer treatment often is the development of drug resistance in cancer cells during chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drugs with improved efficacy against tumor cells and with less toxicity on normal cells. Artesunate (ART), a powerful anti-malarial herbal compound, has been shown to inhibit growth of various tumor cell lines in vitro and of xenografted Kaposi's sarcoma in mice in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ART exerts its cytotoxicity have not been elucidated.

Efferth, Thomas
Giaisi, Marco
Merling, Annette
Krammer, Peter H.
Li-Weber, Min
Publication Title: 
Critical Care Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Markers of oxidative stress are reported to be increased in severe malaria. It has been suggested that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in treatment. We studied the efficacy and safety of parenteral NAC as an adjunct to artesunate treatment of severe falciparum malaria. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the use of high-dose intravenous NAC as adjunctive treatment to artesunate. SETTING: A provincial hospital in Western Thailand and a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew
Abul Faiz, M.
Ruangveerayut, Ronnatrai
Maude, Richard J.
Rahman, M. Ridwanur
Roberts, L. Jackson
Moore, Kevin
Bin Yunus, Emran
Hoque, M. Gofranul
Hasan, Mahatab Uddin
Lee, Sue J.
Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon
Newton, Paul N.
White, Nicholas J.
Day, Nicholas P. J.
Dondorp, Arjen M.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer

Analogs of the malaria therapeutic, artemisinin, possess in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. In this study, two dimeric artemisinins (NSC724910 and 735847) were studied to determine their mechanism of action. Dimers were >1,000 fold more active than monomer and treatment was associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis induction. Dimer activity was inhibited by the antioxidant L-NAC, the iron chelator desferroxamine and exogenous hemin.

Stockwin, Luke H.
Han, Bingnan
Yu, Sherry X.
Hollingshead, Melinda G.
Elsohly, Mahmoud A.
Gul, Waseem
Slade, Desmond
Galal, Ahmed M.
Newton, Dianne L.
Bumke, Maja A.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Pediatrics

We present a 15-month-old boy who developed fulminant hepatic failure after ingesting 10 ml of clove oil. After 24 h, the ALT level was in excess of 13,000 U/l, with blood urea and creatinine of 11.8 mmol and 134 micromol/l respectively. The hepatic impairment resolved after intravenous administration of N-acetylcysteine so that 6 h later, the ALT level was approximately 10,000 U/l. His liver synthetic function and clinical status improved over the next 4 days. This is the first such case report of its kind in Europe.

Janes, Simon E. J.
Price, Caroline S. G.
Thomas, David
Publication Title: 
Journal of General Internal Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common cause of acute renal failure in hospitalized patients. Although patients are often given N-acetylcysteine to prevent renal injury from contrast agents, there are no clear guidelines supporting its use. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether administering N-acetylcysteine around the time of contrast administration reduces the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy.

Liu, Raymond
Nair, Deepu
Ix, Joachim
Moore, Dan H.
Bent, Stephen
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

The major tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), inhibits carcinogenesis in many in vivo models. Many potential mechanisms of action have been proposed based on cell line studies, including prooxidant activity. In the present study, we studied the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the inhibitory effects of EGCG on lung cancer cell growth. We found that NAC (0-2 mM) dose dependently enhanced the growth inhibitory activity of EGCG against murine and human lung cancer cells.

Lambert, Joshua D.
Sang, Shengmin
Yang, Chung S.
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

Apigenin, a plant flavone, potentially activates wild-type p53 and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. We conducted detailed studies to understand its mechanism of action. Exposure of human prostate cancer 22Rv1 cells, harboring wild-type p53, to growth-suppressive concentrations (10-80 microM) of apigenin resulted in the stabilization of p53 by phosphorylation on critical serine sites, p14ARF-mediated downregulation of MDM2 protein, inhibition of NF-kappaB/p65 transcriptional activity, and induction of p21/WAF-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

Shukla, Sanjeev
Gupta, Sanjay
Publication Title: 
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985)

Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been found to protect brain from ischemic injury. We investigated whether IH mitigates brain oxidative stress and behavioral deficits in rats subjected to ethanol intoxication and abrupt ethanol withdrawal (EW). The effects of IH on overt EW behavioral signs, superoxide generation, protein oxidation, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) opening were examined. Male rats consumed dextrin or 6.5% (wt/vol) ethanol for 35 days.

Jung, Marianna E.
Simpkins, James W.
Wilson, Andrew M.
Downey, H. Fred
Mallet, Robert T.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Letters

Ginsenosides are the main bioactive components in American ginseng, a commonly used herb. In this study, we showed that the ginsenoside Rh2 exhibited significantly more potent cell death activity than the ginsenoside Rg3 in HCT116 and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Cell death induced by Rh2 is mediated in part by the caspase-dependent apoptosis and in part by the caspase-independent paraptosis, a type of cell death that is characterized by the accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles.

Li, Binghui
Zhao, Jiong
Wang, Chong-Zhi
Searle, Jennifer
He, Tong-Chuan
Yuan, Chun-Su
Du, Wei


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