Three main functions of external reality (E.R.) relative to the subjecto may be mentioned. a) it is a source of stimulae that promote the structuring of te psychic apparatus. In this sense, E.F. is the place where this apparatus is charged and where it is discharged (specific action). b) it is a vehicle of gratification or frustration of necessity (AnakÈ). The satisfaction of necessity is gratifying, the lackof it is frustrating. c) it is the instance that heals or makes a person ill acording to its possibility of gratifying or frustrating the subject respectively.
Because of the inefficacy of disparate psychiatric and rehabilitative approaches to psychosocial restoration of chronic mental patients, the authors designed the New England Psychiatric Rehabilitation Training Program for vocational rehabilitation counselors who work with these patients. The program extends Erikson's epigenetic sequence to development of work capacity and emphasizes a comprehensive, multiaxial approach to psychopathology and vocational rehabilitation.
Psychiatric education for the medical student addresses itself to students' and potential non-psychiatric physicians' needs in identifying and addressing the biopsychosocial aspects of patient care. The education is best based on the clinical method, using the extended interview to identify the relationship of environmental and social circumstances to the anlage, onset and reaction to illness in the patient. Within this pattern, genetic, epigenetic developmental patterns, earlier illness, behavioral and personality patterns are identified.
International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
At the beginning of the twentieth century Freud and Pavlov made complementary theoretical splits in their observational field. This splitting initiated a dialectical interaction that tended to polarize the Freudian mental world of insight and the psyche against the Pavlovian outer world of learning theories and the soma. The 1950s saw an exaggerated polarization between strict behaviorists and "classical" psychoanalysts. The linkage of ideas of therapeutic action with metapsychology also dates from Freud and is briefly illustrated.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie
The inadequate nature of research into group psychotherapy stems from the lack of a satisfactory general theory that accounts for the group as a social system as well as for the functioning of the individual. A critique is presented of the group-as-whole tradition and a brief introduction given to social system concepts, particularly as they relate to group developmental stages. The idea that groups progress through a series of stages implies the notion of the group as a single entity with its own organizational structure.
Although a decade has passed since the genetics of schizophrenia was examined for the Schizophrenia Bulletin, the epigenetic puzzle of schizophrenia has not yielded its secrets to any scientific break-through. In this article we review a sample of the highlights relevant to enlightened genetic thinking, i.e., a broad diathesis-stressor framework with multifactorial causation assumed and with provision for the epigenetic interaction of psychosocial as well as neurobiological factors.
Psychiatrie, Neurologie, Und Medizinische Psychologie
Basing on earlier work done by Essen-Mˆller in Sweden, Leme Lopez in Brazil, and Tadeusz Bilikiewicz in Poland, a survey is presented of the development of the concepts known an etioepigenetic psychiatric nosography. The significance of these systems in the classification of mental disorders is illustrated by examples. The etioepigenetic system involves three axes of development methods of the complex structure of the psyche.
Data from the US National Huntington's Disease Roster have been analysed in terms of the difference in age of onset (AO) between affected parents and affected offspring, that is, in terms of 'anticipation'. While mean AO in offspring of affected mothers did not differ greatly from AO in their mothers, the distribution of AO in the offspring of affected fathers falls into two groups, the larger group showing an AO only slightly younger than their affected fathers and a small group whose AO was, on average, 24 years younger than their affected fathers.
The possibility has to be considered that the infant, in danger of overwhelming himself with his own excitement, forms object-representations in ways dictated by expediency. It is necessary for survival to establish in one's mind an all-powerful and loving object-representation that contains in it major parts of the self-representation. In fact, all the vital and affective functions are attributed to the parenting object and are used only under a "franchise-like" illusion.
Fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral morphological traits is the result of prenatal developmental instability and has been shown to be greater in organisms having more homozygous genotypes (aabb vs. AaBb, for example). This expected increase in fluctuating asymmetry has been found among individuals having a high degree of liability for schizophrenia, as this disorder appears to have a polygenic basis.