BACKGROUND: Calorie restriction (CR) is promoted to increase longevity, yet this regimen could lead to bone loss and fracture and therefore affect quality of life. METHODS: Forty-six individuals were randomized to 4 groups for 6 months: (1) healthy diet (control group); (2) 25% CR from baseline energy requirements (CR group); (3) 25% energy deficit by a combination of CR and increased aerobic exercise (CR + EX group); and (4) low-calorie diet (890 kcal/d; goal, 15% weight loss) followed by weight maintenance (LCD group).
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio.
European Journal of Endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies
OBJECTIVE: Body composition and energy homeostasis are thought to affect the appetitive hormones: adiponectin, leptin, insulin, and ghrelin. This study examined whether centrally located fat and/or overall adiposity were related to these appetitive hormones in healthy postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Overall and regional body composition was assessed by dual-energy X ray absorptiometry in relation to plasma adiponectin, serum leptin, serum insulin, and plasma ghrelin in 242 postmenopausal women.
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-associated lipoatrophy involves mitochondrial dysfunction. Iron metabolism impacts mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Mitochondrial haplogroups and hemochromatosis gene (HFE) polymorphisms have been associated with ART-induced neuropathy. We assessed relationships between these variants and lipoatrophy. METHODS: The AIDS Clinical Trials Group 384 study randomized ART-naive individuals to receive didanosine-stavudine or zidovudine-lamivudine, combined with efavirenz and/or nelfinavir.
An increased release of free fatty acids (FFAs) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the inter-relationships between body fat, sex, and plasma FFA kinetics.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between regional body composition and liver disease (fibrosis or steatosis) in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals. METHODS: Whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed in 173 HIV/HCV co-infected persons within 12 months of a liver biopsy. Significant fibrosis was defined as a METAVIR stage greater than 1. Steatosis was graded as: 0, none; 1, steatosis involving less than 5% of hepatocytes; 2, 5-29%; 3, 30-60%; 4 greater than 60%, and was defined as more than 0.
BACKGROUND: Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive.
The inverse relationship between fat in bone marrow and bone mass in the skeleton of aging subjects is well known. However, there is no precise therapy for the treatment of bone marrow adiposity. We investigated the ability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fish oil (FO), alone or in combination, to modulate bone loss using 12 months old C57Bl/6J mice fed 10% corn oil diet as control or supplemented with 0.5% CLA or 5% FO or 0.5% CLA+5% FO for 6 months.
Extracts prepared from turmeric (Curcuma longa L., [Zingiberaceae]) containing bioactive phenolic curcuminoids were evaluated for bone-protective effects in a hypogonadal rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Three-month female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with a chemically complex turmeric fraction (41% curcuminoids by weight) or a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric fraction (94% curcuminoids by weight), both dosed at 60 mg/kg 3x per week, or vehicle alone.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Bone mineral density (BMD) is an important factor linked to bone health. Little is known of the prevalence of low BMD and its associated risk factors in an urban underserved population. Between 2001 and 2004, we recruited 338 subjects who completed drug use and medical history questionnaires, underwent hormonal measurements, and underwent whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for evaluation of BMD and body composition. Of these, 132 subjects had site-specific DXA (lumbar spine and hip) performed.